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Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly | Deep Look
 
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What do you do if you are a tiny caddisfly larva growing up in a torrent of water and debris? Simple. You build a shelter out of carefully selected pebbles and some homespun waterproof tape. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * We already mimic them to make fly-fishing lures. But now scientists believe copycatting one tiny insect could hold promise for repairing human tissues and setting bones. Instead of stitches and screws, doctors may soon call on the next generation of medical adhesives — glues and tape — to patch us up internally. The inspiration? Caddisflies, a type of stream-dwelling, fish-baiting insects that live in creeks all across the United States. As a larva, the caddisfly constructs a tiny tube-like house for itself, called a case, entirely underwater, using pebbles and its incredible homespun tape as the mortar. Thanks to the qualities of this amazing silk, the case not only holds up when submerged, it is strong enough to protect the caddisfly’s soft lower body amid forces many times its body weight. Any tape, including this one, has two basic components: the flat ribbon, or backing, and the layer of sticky stuff, or the glue. From the materials science standpoint, caddisfly tape is extraordinary in both departments. Caddisfly silk biomimicry is only in its infancy, but one day, a similar compound might be used inside the body, which is another watery environment, to mend soft tissues and even repair hard ones, such as teeth and bone. In the streambed, or brook, the caddisfly’s case eventually becomes a cocoon. Like its land-based cousins, the butterflies and moths, from whom it diverged 250 millions years ago, the caddisfly larva undergoes a metamorphosis. It seals up its case with a so-called “hat stone” and emerges months later as a winged adult. --- Where do caddisflies live? Caddisflies are most common in shallow, cold, turbulent streams, where the water is highly oxygenated. --- What do caddisflies eat? Caddisflies are herbivores, they eat decaying plant matter and algae on the rocks in the streams where they live. --- What is so special about caddisfly silk? Engineers are interested in two attributes of caddisfly silk. First of all, it can bond to something, such as a pebble, underwater, which no glue people have made can replicate. Second its “viscoelastic” properties allow to it harmlessly absorb physical forces. When stretched, it doesn’t snap back like a rubber band. It returns to its original shape slowly and safely. It's an engineering marvel. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/08/09/sticky-stretchy-waterproof-the-amazing-underwater-tape-of-the-caddisfly/ ---+ For more information: Troutnut.com http://www.troutnut.com/hatch/12/Insect-Trichoptera-Caddisflies ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 These Carnivorous Worms Catch Bugs by Mimicking the Night Sky https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLb0iuTVzW0 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Venom: Nature’s Killer Cocktails https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qd92MuVZXik Gross Science: Sea Turtles Get Herpes, Too https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpqP9bUUInI ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1048930 Deep Look
How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood  |  Deep Look
 
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Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook 🎇 2017 WEBBY PEOPLE'S VOICE WINNER 🎇 for Best Science & Education Video 📹 ! http://webbyawards.com/winners/2017/film-video/general-film/science-education/ Seen up close, the anatomy of a mosquito bite is terrifying. The most dangerous animal in the world uses six needle-like mouthparts to saw into our skin, tap a blood vessel and sometimes leave a dangerous parting gift. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Scientists have discovered that the mosquito’s mouth, called a proboscis isn’t just one tiny spear. It’s a sophisticated system of thin needles, each of which pierces the skin, finds blood vessels and makes it easy for mosquitoes to suck blood out of them. Male mosquitoes don’t bite us, but when a female mosquito pierces the skin, a flexible lip-like sheath called the labium scrolls up and stays outside as she pushes in six needle-like parts that scientists refer to as stylets. Two of these needles, called maxillae, have tiny teeth. The mosquito uses them to saw through the skin. They’re so sharp you can barely feel the mosquito biting you. “They’re like drill bits,” said University of California, Davis, biochemist Walter Leal. Another set of needles, the mandibles, hold tissues apart while the mosquito works. Then the sharp-tipped labrum needle probes under the skin, piercing a vessel and sucking blood from it. The sixth needle – called the hypopharynx – drools saliva into us, and delivers chemicals that keep our blood flowing. Mosquito saliva also makes our blood vessels dilate, blocks our immune response and lubricates the proboscis. It causes us to develop itchy welts, and serves as a conduit for dangerous viruses and parasites. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/06/07/how-mosquitoes-use-six-needles-to-suck-your-blood ---+ What is the deadliest animal in the world? Mosquitoes are the deadliest animals in the world to us humans. The diseases they transmit kill hundreds of thousands of people each year. ---+ How many people get malaria each year? In 2015, malaria, the deadliest mosquito-borne disease, killed roughly 635,000 people, mostly children under the age of five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. ---+ What diseases do mosquitoes transmit? Malaria, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile and Zika are some of the diseases that mosquitoes transmit. Dengue fever, transmitted Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, is estimated to make almost 400 million people sick with jabbing joint pain each year. Scientists also believe that Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main culprit for more than 350 confirmed cases of congenital malformations associated with the Zika virus in the northeastern Brazilian state of Pernambuco. Since last October, an unusually high number of babies have been born there with small heads and a host of health problems like convulsions, suspected of being caused by a Zika virus infection early in their mother’s pregnancy. ---+ What diseases can I get from mosquitoes in the United States? West Nile virus is the most important of several mosquito-transmitted viruses now native to the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control. ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://youtu.be/BWwgLS5tK80 --- See also this new Zika video from PBS Digital Studios: Should You Be Worried About Zika? | It's Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZ9S_3RFBgc ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. -- Video of mosquito labrum probing under mouse skin from: Choumet V, Attout T, Chartier L, Khun H, Sautereau J, et al. (2012) Visualizing Non Infectious and Infectious Anopheles gambiae Blood Feedings in Naïve and Saliva-Immunized Mice. PLoS ONE 7(12): e50464. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050464 . Used under the terms of: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Animations based on drawing in Choo Y-M, Buss GK, Tan K and Leal WS (2015) Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding. Front. Physiol. 6:306. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00306 Used under the terms of: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ #deeplook #mosquito #mosquitobite
Views: 13618051 Deep Look
The Snail-Smashing, Fish-Spearing, Eye-Popping Mantis Shrimp | Deep Look
 
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The killer punch of the mantis shrimp is the fastest strike in the animal kingdom, a skill that goes hand in hand with its extraordinary eyesight. They can see an invisible level of reality using polarized light, which could lead to a breakthrough in detecting cancer. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Aggressive, reef-dwelling mantis shrimp take more than one first-place ribbon in the animal kingdom. Outwardly resembling their lobster cousins, their colorful shells contain an impressive set of superpowers. There are two types of mantis shrimp, named for their attack mode while hunting prey: smashers and spearers. With their spring-loaded, weaponized legs, these predators can crack a snail shell or harpoon a passing fish in a single punch. The speed of these attacks has earned the mantis shrimp one of their world records: fastest strike in the animal kingdom. Scientists are finding that another of their special abilities -- incredible eyesight -- has potential life-saving implications for people with cancer. Mantis shrimp can perceive the most elusive attribute of light from the human standpoint: polarization. Polarization refers to the angle that light travels through space. Though it’s invisible to the human eye, many animals see this quality of light, especially underwater. But mantis shrimp can see a special kind of polarization, called circular polarization. Scientists have found that some mantis shrimp species use circular polarization to communicate with each other on a kind of secret visual channel for mating and territorial purposes. Inspired by the mantis shrimp’s superlative eyesight, a group of researchers is collaborating to build polarization cameras that would constitute a giant leap for early cancer detection. These cameras see otherwise invisible cancerous tissues by detecting their polarization signature, which is different between diseased and healthy tissues. --- How fast is the mantis shrimp punch? Their strike is about as fast as a .22 caliber rifle bullet. It’s been measured at 50mph. --- What do mantis shrimp eat? The “smasher” mantis shrimp eat hard-shelled creatures like snails and crabs. The “spearers” grab fish, worms, seahorses, and other soft-bodied prey by impaling them. --- Where do mantis shrimp live? In reefs, from the east coast of Africa to the west coast of Australia, and throughout Indonesia. A few species are scattered around the globe, including two in California. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/11/15/the-snail-smashing-fish-spearing-eye-popping-mantis-shrimp/ ---+ For more information: Caldwell Lab at U.C. Berkeley: http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/caldwell/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-RtG5Z-9jQ Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ak2xqH5h0YY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Physics Girl: The Ultraviolet Catastrophe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXfrncRey-4 Gross Science: What Sound Does An Ant Make? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yif0c0bRA48 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 925896 Deep Look
Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage | Deep Look
 
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Tiny and delicate, pygmy seahorses survive by attaching to vibrant corals where they become nearly invisible to both predators and researchers. Now, biologists at the California Academy of Sciences have successfully bred them in captivity for the first time. Finally, they're able to study the seahorses' amazing act of camouflage up close. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Over the summer, biologists from the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco returned from an expedition to the Philippines with some very rare and diminutive guests, a mating pair of pygmy seahorses. Pygmy seahorses live their entire adult lives attached to a type of coral called a Gorgonian sea fan. The seahorses use their long tails to grab on to the delicately branched sea fans. But what’s really amazing is their ability to match the coral’s bright color and knobby texture. They blend in so perfectly that they are barely visible, even to a trained eye. Pygmy seahorses are nearly impossible to raise in captivity. Until recently, there was no record of the seahorses ever living long enough to breed in an aquarium. As a result, very little is known about them, making them extremely attractive to researchers eager to learn about the mysterious species. The Gorgonian sea fan is itself an animal, distantly related to jellyfish and anemones, and is very difficult to raise in tanks. But these seahorses cannot live without the them. How do seahorses mate? They do a courtship dance during which the female puts her eggs in the males brood pouch. How do seahorses give birth? Like other seahorses, it is the male pygmy that rears the offspring in his brood pouch, releasing groups of offspring every two weeks. Check out an additional video from the Cal Academy: http://goo.gl/QhAf0T Find out more about pygmy seahorses: http://blogs.kqed.org/science/2014/10/21/pygmy-seahorses-masters-of-camouflage/ Created by KQED Public Media in San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 492629 Deep Look
Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look
 
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Conceived in the open sea, tiny spaceship-shaped sea urchin larvae search the vast ocean to find a home. After this incredible odyssey, they undergo one of the most remarkable transformations in nature. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Every summer, millions of people head to the coast to soak up the sun and play in the waves. But they aren’t alone. Just beyond the crashing surf, hundreds of millions of tiny sea urchin larvae are also floating around, preparing for one of the most dramatic transformations in the animal kingdom. Scientists along the Pacific coast are investigating how these microscopic ocean drifters, which look like tiny spaceships, find their way back home to the shoreline, where they attach themselves, grow into spiny creatures and live out a slow-moving life that often exceeds 100 years.“These sorts of studies are absolutely crucial if we want to not only maintain healthy fisheries but indeed a healthy ocean,” says Jason Hodin, a research scientist at the University of Washington’s Friday Harbor Laboratories. http://staff.washington.edu/hodin/ http://depts.washington.edu/fhl/ Sea urchins reproduce by sending clouds of eggs and sperm into the water. Millions of larvae are formed, but only a handful make it back to the shoreline to grow into adults. --- What are sea urchins? Sea urchins are spiny invertebrate animals. Adult sea urchins are globe-shaped and show five-point radial symmetry. They move using a system of tube feet. Sea urchins belong to the phylum Echinodermata along with their relatives the sea stars (starfish), sand dollars and sea slugs. --- What do sea urchins eat? Sea urchins eat algae and can reduce kelp forests to barrens if their numbers grow too high. A sea urchin’s mouth, referred to as Aristotle’s lantern, is on the underside and has five sharp teeth. The urchin uses the tube feet to move the food to its mouth. --- How do sea urchins reproduce? Male sea urchins release clouds of sperm and females release huge numbers of eggs directly into the ocean water. The gametes meet and the sperm fertilize the eggs. The fertilized eggs grow into free-swimming embryos which themselves develop into larvae called plutei. The plutei swim through the ocean as plankton until they drop to the seafloor and metamorphosize into the globe-shaped adult urchins. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/08/23/sea-urchins-pull-themselves-inside-out-to-be-reborn/ ---+ For more information: Marine Larvae Video Resource http://marinedevelopmentresource.stanford.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: From Drifter to Dynamo: The Story of Plankton | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUvJ5ANH86I Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww The Fantastic Fur of Sea Otters | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zxqg_um1TXI ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay To Be Smart: Can Coral Reefs Survive Climate Change? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7ydNafXxJI Gross Science: White Sand Beaches Are Made of Fish Poop https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1SfxgY1dIM4 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #seaurchin #urchins
Views: 2699814 Deep Look
The Amazing Life of Sand | Deep Look
 
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There's a story in every grain of sand: tales of life and death, fire and water. If you scooped up a handful of sand from every beach, you'd have a history of the world sifting through your fingers. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * ---+ How does sand form? Sand can be anything that has been worn down until it’s reduced to some tiny, essential fragment of what it once was: a granite pebble from the mountains; coral from the sea; obsidian from a volcano; even skeletons of microscopic sea animals. It's also a technical term. Bigger than sand, that’s gravel, smaller? Silt. By studying the composition and texture of sand, geologists can reconstruct its incredible life history. “There’s just a ton of information out there, and all of it is in the sand,” said Mary McGann, a geologist at the United States Geological Survey in Menlo Park, CA. McGann recently took part in a comprehensive research project mapping sand’s journey into and throughout San Francisco Bay. Patrick Barnard, another USGS geologist who helped oversee the project, said that it will help scientists understand how local beaches are changing over time. In particular, Barnard wants to understand why beaches just south of San Francisco Bay are among the most rapidly eroding beaches in the state. From 2010-2012, Barnard and his team sampled beaches, outcrops, rivers and creeks to track sand’s journey around the bay. They even collected sand from the ocean floor. The researchers then carefully analyzed the samples to characterize the shapes, sizes, and chemical properties of the sand grains. Barnard said the information provides a kind of fingerprint, or signature, for each sample that can then be matched to a potential source. For example, certain minerals may only come from the Sierra Mountains or the Marin Headlands. “If we’ve covered all of the potential sources, and we know the unique signature of the sand from these different sources, and we find it on a beach somewhere, then we basically know where it came from,” explained Barnard. And those species aren’t the only things finding their way into the sand. Manmade materials can show up there, too. McGann has found metal welding scraps and tiny glass spheres (commonly sprinkled on highways to make road stripes reflective) in sand samples from around the bay. “All of these things can get washed into our rivers or our creeks, or washed off the road in storm drains,” explained McGann. “Eventually they end up in, for example, San Francisco Bay.” By piecing together all of these clues – the information found in the minerals, biological material and man made objects that make up sand – the researchers ended up with a pretty clear picture of how sand travels around San Francisco Bay. Some sands stay close to home. Rocky sand in the Marin Headlands comes from nearby bluffs, never straying far from its source. Other sands travel hundreds of miles. Granite from the Sierra Nevada mountains careens down rivers and streams on a century-long sojourn to the coast. In fact, much of the sand in the Bay Area comes from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, with local watersheds also playing an important role in transporting sand to the beach. Although this project focused on San Francisco Bay, the same techniques could be used to study other coastal systems, he added, revealing the incredible life stories of sand from around the world. ---+ More Deep Look episodes: What Happens When You Zap Coral With The World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser? https://youtu.be/aXmCU6IYnsA These 'Resurrection Plants' Spring Back to Life in Seconds https://youtu.be/eoFGKlZMo2g -- Full article: http://blogs.kqed.org/science/2014/11/04/the-amazing-life-of-sand/ ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 517870 Deep Look
These Hairworms Eat a Cricket Alive and Control Its Mind | Deep Look
 
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Support Deep Look on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook A baby hairworm hitches a ride inside a cricket, feasting on its fat until the coiled-up parasite is ready to burst out. Then it hijacks the cricket's mind and compels it to head to water for a gruesome little swim. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is an ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. If you’re out on a hike and look down at a puddle, you might spot a long, brown spaghetti-shaped creature whipping around madly in a figure 8. It’s a hairworm – also known as a horsehair worm or Gordian worm – and researchers have described 350 species around the world. Good news: It isn’t interested in infecting or attacking humans. But if you had happened on the puddle a few hours earlier, you might have witnessed a gruesome spectacle – the hairworm wriggling out of a cricket’s body, pushing its way out like the baby monster in the movie “Alien.” How a hairworm ends up in a puddle, or another water source such as a stream, hot tub or a pet’s water dish, is a complex story. A young hairworm finds its way into a cricket or similar insect like a beetle or grasshopper, and once it’s grown into an adult, the parasite takes over its host’s brain to hitch a ride to the water. As a result of the infection, crickets stop growing and reproducing. Male crickets infected by hairworms even lose their chirp, said Ben Hanelt, a biologist at the University of New Mexico who studies hairworms. --- What *is* a hair worm? A hair worm or hairworm – pick your spelling – is a nematomorph. Nematomorpha are a group of parasites. They’re long, thin worms that can grow to be several meters long inside their host. --- Can humans be infected by hair worms? There are reports of humans and cats and dogs being infected by hair worms, but hair worms aren’t after us or our pets because they can’t grow inside us, said Hanelt. They can only grow inside a host like a cricket or a related insect. “What happens is that a dog, a cat, a human will ingest an adult (hair worm) somehow,” said Hanelt. “Could a cricket crawl in your sandwich before you take a bite? I don’t know. None of the studies that are out there talk about that. What they have been reported to do is to cause in many people intestinal distress.” --- How do hair worms control crickets’ minds? Scientists don’t understand the precise mechanism yet, but they believe that hairworms either boost chemicals in the crickets’ brains or pump chemicals into their brains. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1937775/these-hairworms-eat-a-cricket-alive-and-control-its-mind ---+ For more information: Hairworm Biodiversity Survey: http://www.nematomorpha.net ---+ More great Deep Look episodes: Jerusalem Crickets Only Date Drummers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHbwC-AIyTE How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU Identical Snowflakes? Scientist Ruins Winter For Everyone https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gojddrb70N8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kqedscience/ Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science on kqed.org: http://www.kqed.org/science Facebook Watch: https://www.facebook.com/DeepLookPBS/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/deeplook ---+ Shoutout! 🏆Congratulations 🏆 to Sushant Mendon who won our GIF CHALLENGE over at the Deep Look Community Tab: https://www.youtube.com/user/KQEDDeepLook/community ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by the National Science Foundation, the Templeton Religion Trust, the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #hairworms #wildlife
Views: 4427830 Deep Look
Watch This Bee Build Her Bee-jeweled Nest | Deep Look
 
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Take the PBSDS survey: https://to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey Please support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Pollinator. Mason. Jeweler. A female blue orchard bee is a multitasking master. She fashions exquisite nests out of mud and pollen that resemble pieces of jewelry. And in the process, she helps us grow nuts and fruits. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * A new type of bee is buzzing through California's orchards. And researchers are hoping that the iridescent, greenish insect may help provide a more efficient way to pollinate nuts and fruits in an era when traditional honeybees have struggled. Unlike honeybees, blue orchard bees don’t sting humans. And instead of building large colonies with thousands of worker bees caring for eggs laid by a queen bee, female blue orchard bees work alone to build their nests and stock them with food. They’re solitary bees, like most of the 4,000 species of bees in North America. Blue orchard bees, which are native to the United States, are of increasing interest to scientists, government agencies and farmers for their ability to pollinate almonds, sweet cherries and other tree fruits more efficiently than honeybees. “This is, I think, the moment for these bees to shine,” said entomologist Natalie Boyle, who studies blue orchard bees at the United States Department of Agriculture in Logan, Utah. Boyle works with almond growers in California, whose crop is worth $5.2 billion a year and who rely heavily on honeybees to pollinate their orchards every February. Research has found that 400 female blue orchard bees are as effective at pollinating almonds as the more than 10,000 bees in a honeybee hive, said Boyle. Between 40 and 50 percent of honeybee colonies die each year around the country, according to the yearly National Honey Bee Survey, carried out by universities with the sponsorship of the USDA and the California Almond Board, among others. Finding other bees that could work side by side with honeybees could offer what Boyle calls “pollination insurance.” --- What is a mason bee? The blue orchard bee is a mason bee. Females build their nests out of mud that they collect with two huge pincer-like tools on their face called mandibles. In nature, they build their nests in places like hollow twigs. But they will also build them in pencil-wide drill holes in a wood block. --- What makes blue orchard bees good pollinators? One thing that makes blue orchard bees good pollinators are hairs on their abdomen called scopa, on which they collect and spread pollen. Blue orchard bees are particularly good at pollinating almonds and tree fruits like cherries and apples because they love foraging in their flowers. And they’re particularly well-suited to pollinate almonds, which are in bloom in February, when it’s chilly in California’s Central Valley, because they will fly around and forage at a cooler temperature than honeybees. ---+ Read the article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1928378/watch-this-bee-build-her-bee-jeweled-nest ---+ For more information: Download the free book How to Manage the Blue Orchard Bee: https://www.sare.org/Learning-Center/Books/How-to-Manage-the-Blue-Orchard-Bee ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower’s Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 What Do Earwigs Do With Those Pincers Anyway? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HuOnqWpIL9E ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: When Insects First Flew https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7QMcXEj7IT0 CrashCourse: The Plants & The Bees: Plant Reproduction - CrashCourse Biology #38 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ExaQ8shhkw8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kqedscience/ Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science on kqed.org: http://www.kqed.org/science Facebook Watch: https://www.facebook.com/DeepLookPBS/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/deeplook ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook #blueorchardbee #wildlifedocumentary
Views: 1612320 Deep Look
These Lizards Have Been Playing Rock-Paper-Scissors for 15 Million Years  | Deep Look
 
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Male side-blotched lizards have more than one way to get the girl. Orange males are bullies. Yellows are sneaks. Blues team up with a buddy to protect their territories. Who wins? It depends - on a genetic game of roshambo. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Every spring, keen-eyed biologists carrying fishing poles search the rolling hills near Los Banos, about two hours south of San Francisco. But they’re not looking for fish. They’re catching rock-paper-scissors lizards. The research team collects Western side-blotched lizards, which come in different shades of blue, orange and yellow. Barry Sinervo, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at UC Santa Cruz, leads the team. Their intricate mating strategies reminded the the researchers of the rock-paper-scissors game where rock beats scissors, scissors beats paper and paper beats rock. It’s all about territories. Orange males tend to be the biggest and most aggressive. They hold large territories with several females each and are able to oust the somewhat smaller and less aggressive blues. Blue males typically hold smaller territories and more monogamous, each focusing his interest on a single female. Yellow males tend not to even form exclusive territories Instead they use stealth to find unaccompanied females with whom to mate. The yellow males are particularly successful with females that live in territories held by their more aggressive orange competitors. Because the orange males spread their attention among several females, they aren’t able to guard each individual female against intruding yellow males. But the more monogamous blues males are more vigilant and chase sneaky yellow males away. Their different strategies keep each other in check making the system stable. Sinervo believes this game has likely been in play for at least 15 million years. --- How do side-blotched lizards choose a mate? The males compete with each other, sometimes violently, for access to females. The females generally prefer males of their own color but also give preference to whichever color male is more rare that mating season. --- Why do lizards do push up and down? Male lizards do little pushups as a territorial display meant to tell competitors to back off. It’s best to use a warning instead of fighting right away because there’s always a danger of getting hurt in a fight. Some lizards like side-blotched lizards also use slow push ups to warn their neighbors of an incoming threat. --- Why do side-blotched lizards fight? Sometimes aggressive territorial displays are not enough to dissuade invaders so side-blotched lizards will resort to fighting. They have small sharp teeth and will lunge at each other inflicting bites and headbutts. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/05/17/these-lizards-have-been-playing-rock-paper-scissors-for-15-million-years/ ---+ For more information: The Lab of Dr. Barry Sinervo, LizardLand, University of California, Santa Cruz http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/~barrylab/lizardland/game.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Meet the Dust Mites, Tiny Roommates That Feast On Your Skin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACrLMtPyRM0 Stinging Scorpion vs. Pain-Defying Mouse https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-K_YtWqMro These Crazy Cute Baby Turtles Want Their Lake Back https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTYFdpNpkMY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: The Cosmic Afterglow https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvrHL7-c1Ys It's Okay to Be Smart: The Most Important Moment in the History of Life https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jf06MlX8yik ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #lizards #rockpaperscissorslizardspock
Views: 1148516 Deep Look
Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth | Deep Look
 
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Pill bugs. Doodle bugs. Potato bugs. Wood Shrimp. Whatever you call them, there’s something less creepy about these critters than other insects. Maybe it’s because they’re not insects at all. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * With winter rains, Bay Area pill bugs are out in force. Fortunately, they’re one of our most beloved “bugs.” Pill bugs. Doodle bugs. Potato bugs. Wood Shrimp. Whatever you call them, there’s something less creepy about these critters than other insects. Maybe it’s because they’re not insects at all. Pill bugs are more closely related to a shrimp and lobsters than crickets or butterflies. Their ancestors lived in the sea, but ancient pill bugs crawled out millions of years ago to carve a life for themselves on dry land. You can see the evidence if you take a close look at them, so that’s exactly what we did for this episode of Deep Look, an ultra-high definition wildlife video series produced by KQED and PBS DIgital Studios. “Kids love them,” said Jonathan Wright, a professor of biology at Pomona College who studies the charismatic creepy-crawlies. After all, who hasn’t delighted as a youth in annoying a pill bug until it defensively curls up into a little armored ball? Some adventurous foragers even eat pill bugs. Their flavor is said to resemble other crustaceans, earning pill bugs the moniker “wood shrimp”. “I personally haven’t tasted one,” said Wright, “but I’ve spoken to people that have. They didn’t get a particularly high approval rating. Pill bugs have a lot of soil in their gut.” They may not be ready to replace shrimp as an appetizer, but according to Wright, the evidence of the pill bug’s evolutionary lineage lies underneath its shell. --- What are pill bugs related to? Pill bugs are terrestrial crustaceans. They’re more closely related to marine creatures like lobsters and shrimp than crickets or other insects. --- If pill bugs have gills, can they survive underwater? Most pill bugs will drown within a few hours if submerged because their pleopod gills have become better at removing oxygen from air and less good at removing oxygen from water --- Why do pill bugs roll into a ball? Pill bugs roll into a ball to protect themselves from potential predators. They will also roll up, a process called conglobation, to keep from drying out if they don’t have access to enough moisture. --- What do pill bugs eat? Pill bugs mostly eat decaying plant matter but also consume fungus, algae and lichens. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/01/17/roly-polies-came-from-the-sea-to-conquer-the-earth-deep-look/ ---+ For more information: Respiratory physiology of the Oniscidea: Aerobic capacity and the significance of pleopodal lungs. Jonathan C. Wright and Kevin Ting ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Double-Crossing Ants to Whom Friendship Means Nothing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fguo3HvWjb0 The Snail-Smashing, Fish-Spearing, Eye-Popping Mantis Shrimp https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lm1ChtK9QDU These Termites Turn Your House into a Palace of Poop https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYPQ1Tjp0ew&t=83s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! A Venus Flytrap Works Just Like Your Brain | Brain Craft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s0prAxQTuAA What are antibubbles? | Physics Girl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5UMyck8D64 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #pillbug #isopod
Views: 1536672 Deep Look
Why Does Your Cat's Tongue Feel Like Sandpaper? | Deep Look
 
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It's not vanity. For cats, staying clean is a matter of life and death. And their tongue, specially equipped for the job, is just one of the things that makes cats such successful predators. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Even after thousands of years sharing our homes, cats still remain mysterious. For one thing, they spend an inordinate amount of time grooming themselves, up to half of their waking hours. But all of that primping isn’t about vanity. For ambush predators like cats, staying clean is a matter of life and death. In this episode of Deep Look we get up close and personal with these fastidious felines. By looking closely at cat tongues, research at MIT and Georgia Tech reveals clues to cats’ predatory prowess and finds inspiration for new technologies. --- Why do cat’s tongues feel like sandpaper? Cats’ tongues are covered in little spines called “papillae” that look like tiny hooks. Cats use their tongues to groom and the spines do a great job of detangling knots. --- Why do cats spend so much time grooming? Cat’s spend much of their day cleaning themselves- up to half of their waking hours! Cats are ambush predators and they need to stay clean in order to remain hidden from their prey. Prey species tend to be on the lookout for danger, and one whiff of the wrong odor can give the cat away. --- Why do cats drink with their tongues? Like most other mammals that are predators, cats have wide mouths to help them sink their teeth deep into their prey. The large opening on the sides of their mouth helps them get a better bite, but it makes it hard for them to create suction in order to drink. Instead they use their tongue to draw water up from the surface into a column. They then bite the column to get the water. They usually lap about four times per second. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/02/28/why-does-your-cats-tongue-feel-like-sandpaper/ ---+ For more information: How Cats Lap: Water Uptake by Felis catus http://science.sciencemag.org/content/330/6008/1231 ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: If Your Hands Could Smell, You’d Be an Octopus | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XXMxihOh8ps Archerfish Says..."I Spit in Your Face!" | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gN81dtxilhE Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sj8pFX9SOXE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Pigeon Story: How the Rock Dove Became the Sky Rat | It’s OK to be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8Y7Q1eja-E Everything is Trying to Kill You https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LB8SqTwT93E ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 751957 Deep Look
A Sand Dollar's Breakfast is Totally Metal | Deep Look
 
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Their skeletons are prized by beachcombers, but sand dollars look way different in their lives beneath the waves. Covered in thousands of purple spines, they have a bizarre diet that helps them exploit the turbulent waters of the sandy sea floor. Please follow us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Pristine white sand dollars have long been the souvenir to commemorate a successful day at the beach. But most people who pick them up don’t realize that they’ve collected the skeleton of an animal, washed up at the end of a long life. As it turns out, scientists say there’s a lot to be said about a sand dollar’s life. That skeleton -- also known as a test -- is really a tool, a remarkable feat of engineering that allows sand dollars to thrive on the shifting bottom of the sandy seafloor, an environment that most other sea creatures find inhospitable. “They've done something really amazing and different,” said Rich Mooi, a researcher with the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. “They’re a pile of novelties, and they’ve gone way off the deep end in modifying their bodies to adapt to where they live.” Mooi studies echinoderms, a word that roughly translates to “hedgehog skin.” It’s an aptly-fitting name for a group that includes sea urchins, sand dollars, sea stars and sea cucumbers. But Mooi says sand dollars really have his heart, in part because of their incredible adaptations. --- What are sand dollars? Sand dollars belong to a group of animals called Echinoderms that includes some more familiar animals like starfish and sea urchins. Sand dollars are actually a type of flattened sea urchin with miniaturized spines and tube feet more suited to sandy seafloors. --- What do sand dollars eat? Sand dollars consume sand but they get actual nutrition from the layer of algae and bacteria that coat the grains, not the sand itself. --- Are sand dollars alive? Why do they Turn White? When sand dollars are alive, they are covered in tiny tube feet and spines that make them appear like fuzzy discs. When they die, they lose their spines and tube feet exposing their white skeleton that scientists call a test. That skeleton is typically what people find on the beach. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1932072/a-sand-dollars-breakfast-is-totally-metal/ ---+ For more information: Learn more about Chris Lowe’s work with plankton including sand dollars and their relatives http://lowe.stanford.edu/ Rich Mooi’s research into sand dollars for California Academy of Sciences https://www.calacademy.org/learn-explore/science-heroes/rich-mooi ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Amazing Life of Sand | Deep Look https://youtu.be/VkrQ9QuKprE For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look https://youtu.be/tfoYD8pAsMw This Adorable Sea Slug is a Sneaky Little Thief | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KLVfWKxtfow&t=112s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! These Tiny Cells Shape Your Life | BrainCraft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fnx-Qvx_fA8 What are Eye Boogers? | Reactions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3M8p-QCC7I ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. ---+ SHOUT OUTS Here are the winners from our episode image quiz posted in our channel Community Tab: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-3SbfTPJsL8fJAPKiVqBLg/community?lb=Ugyk9txDEOltWx4lx9F4AaABCQ 🏆#1: Tektyx Was the first to correctly ID the creature in our episode was a sand dollar. 🏆#2: tichu7 Was the first to ID what kind of sand dollar it was, the Pacific sand dollar. 🏆#3: Miguel Gomez Also posted what kind of sand dollar it was was, but by another name: Eccentric sand dollar. 🏆#4: Gir Gremlin The first viewer to identify the sand dollar by its scientific name: Dendraster excentricus!
Views: 443861 Deep Look
For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look
 
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Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, make their living just under the surface of the sand, where they're safe from breaking waves and hungry birds. Some very special physics help them dig with astonishing speed. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Among the surfers and beach-casting anglers, there’s a new visitor to San Francisco’s Ocean Beach shoreline. Benjamin McInroe is there for only one reason -- to find Pacific mole crabs, a creature commonly known as “sand crabs” -- and the tiny animals whose burrowing causes millions of small bubbles to appear on the beach as the tide comes in and out. McInroe is a graduate student from UC Berkeley studying biophysics. He wants to know what makes these little creatures so proficient at digging their way through the wet sand. McInroe hopes that he can one day copy their techniques to build a new generation of digging robots. -- What are Pacific Mole Crabs? Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, are crustaceans, related to shrimp and lobsters. They have four pairs of legs and one pair of specialized legs in the front called uropods that look like paddles for digging in sand. Pacific mole crabs burrow through wet sand and stick their antennae out to catch bits of kelp and other debris kicked up by the breaking waves. -- What makes those holes in the sand at the beach? When the waves recede, mole crabs burrow down into the sand to keep from being exposed. They dig tail-first very quickly leaving holes in the wet sand. The holes bubble as water seeps into the holes and the air escapes. -- What do birds eat in the wet beach sand? Shore birds like seagulls rush down the beach as the waves recede to catch mole crabs that haven’t burrowed down quickly enough to escape. The birds typically run or fly away as the next wave breaks and rolls in. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/02/13/for-pacific-mole-crabs-its-dig-or-die/ ---+ For more information: Benjamin McInroe, a Ph.D. student at UC Berkeley, studies how Pacific mole crabs burrow https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~bmcinroe/ Professor Robert Full directs the Poly-PEDAL Lab at UC Berkeley, where researchers study the physics of how animals and use that knowledge to build mechanical systems like robots based on their findings. http://polypedal.berkeley.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look https://youtu.be/OwQcv7TyX04 These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look https://youtu.be/j5F3z1iP0Ic Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look https://youtu.be/ak2xqH5h0YY There's Something Very Fishy About These Trees ... | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE&t=1s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? | Origin of Everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOeFRg_1_Yg Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g246c6Bv58 ---+ Follow KQED Science KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1441459 Deep Look
What Makes Owls So Quiet and So Deadly? | Deep Look
 
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It's stealth, not speed that makes owls such exceptional hunters. Zoom way in on their phenomenal feathers to see what makes them whisper-quiet. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. --- How do owls hunt silently? When birds flap their wings it creates turbulences in the air as it rushes over their wings. In general, the larger a bird is and the faster it flies, the larger the turbulence created and that means more sound. The feathers at the leading edge of an owl’s wings have an unusual serrated appearance, referred to as a comb or fringe. The tiny hooked projections stick out and break up the wind as it flows over the owl’s wings reducing the size and sound of the turbulences. Owl feathers go one step further to control sound. When viewed up-close, owl feathers appear velvety. The furry texture absorbs and dampens sound like a sound blanket. It also allows the feathers to quietly slide past each other in flight, reducing rusting sounds. --- Why do owls hunt at night? Owls belong to a group called raptors which also so includes with hawks, eagles and falcons. Most of these birds of prey hunt during the day and rely on. But unlike most other raptors, the roughly 200 species of owl are generally nocturnal while others are crepuscular, meaning that they’re active around dawn and dusk. They have extremely powerful low-light vision, and finely tuned hearing which allows them to locate the source of even the smallest sound. Owls simply hide and wait for their prey to betray its own location. As ambush hunters, owls tend to rely on surprise more often than their ability to give chase. --- Why do owls hoot? With Halloween around the corner, you might have noticed a familiar sound in the night. It’s mating season for owls and the sound of their hooting fills the darkness. According to Chris Clark, an an assistant professor of biology at UC Riverside,, “The reason why owls are getting ready to breed right now in the late fall is because they breed earlier than most birds. The bigger the bird the longer it takes for them to incubate their eggs and for the nestlings to hatch out and or the fledglings to leave the nest. Owls try to breed really early because they want their babies to be leaving the nest and practicing hunting right when there are lots of baby animals around like baby rabbits that are easy prey.” --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Halloween Special: Watch Flesh-Eating Beetles Strip Bodies to the Bone https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Np0hJGKrIWg What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY You're Not Hallucinating. That's Just Squid Skin. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wtLrlIKvJE --- Super videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Did Dinosaurs Really Go Extinct? - It's Okay to be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_RLz0whDv4 The Surprising Ways Death Shapes Our Lives - BrainCraft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Joalg73L_gw Crazy pool vortex - Physics Girl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pnbJEg9r1o8 --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 775443 Deep Look
The Double-Crossing Ants to Whom Friendship Means Nothing | Deep Look
 
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The Peruvian Amazon is a dangerous place when you're small. So the young Inga tree hires ants as bodyguards to protect its vulnerable leaves. Their pay: delicious nectar served up in tiny ant-sized dishes. But will the ants keep up their end of the bargain? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * For some, ants are welcome guests. In the Amazon rainforest of Peru, a type of tree called the Inga actively encourages ants to stick around. The tree, which is related to plants that produce beans and other legumes, grows tiny structures near the base of its leaves, called nectaries, that secrete a sugary fluid to feed to the ants. In turn, the ants serve as bodyguards, protecting the Inga and its nectaries from invading herbivores. “Plants have all kinds of defenses, but because Inga leaves are not as toxic as many other plants,” says Suzanne Koptur, a professor of biology at Florida International University, “they’re good food for herbivores of all sizes and shapes, from big mammals like sloths and monkeys to little invertebrates like caterpillars.“ The rainforest is especially dangerous for young trees. The branches and leaves of mature trees merge together high in the air forming a canopy. Young trees on the forest floor struggle to get enough light. Young trees also have fewer leaves, and losing even a few to herbivores can threaten their survival. They may be small, but few species want to tangle with the aggressive and territorial big-headed ants. "Ants have powers in numbers, especially if they bite and sting," says Koptur. The ants keep most herbivores, especially hungry caterpillars, away from the young trees. Simply put, the trees provide nectar to the ants in exchange for protection. --- What is mutualism? In biology, mutualism refers to a relationship between two organisms that benefits both of parties. Mutualism is one type of symbiotic relationship. --- What are caterpillars? Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and caterpillars. Young caterpillars hatch out of eggs, eat, grow and molt. They eventually pupate inside their cocoons and then emerge as winged adults. --- What is plant nectar? Nectar is a sugary liquid secreted by plants through structures called nectaries. Nectaries are commonly found in flowers to attract pollinators. Some plants also have extra-floral nectaries located outside of the flowers. To attract animals including ants and predatory wasps that protect the plant from herbivores. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/11/01/the-double-crossing-ants-to-whom-friendship-means-nothing/ ---+ For more information: Interactions Among Inga, Herbivores, Ants, and Insect Visitors to Foliar Nectaries http://faculty.fiu.edu/~kopturs/pubs/MVbookIngaAnts.pdf ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boyzWeHdtiI Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Why Don't Ants Get Stuck In Traffic? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kkiuw0HbRq4 Gross Science: The World's Most Expensive Fungus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iV4WHFU2Id8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. macro documentary #deeplook
Views: 986616 Deep Look
How Kittens Go From Clueless to Cute | Deep Look
 
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Please support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Take the PBSDS survey: https://to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey Fluffy kittens chasing a ball are beyond adorable -- but they sure aren't born that way. Practically deaf and blind, in their first few weeks they need constant warmth and milk to survive. This is a huge challenge for animal shelters, so they're working with researchers on ways to help motherless kittens flourish. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. -- Every year, hundreds of thousands of kittens end up in animal shelters, in need of permanent homes. But raising orphaned newborns into healthy, fluffy, frisky two-month-olds ready to be adopted requires an enormous behind-the-scenes effort. All across the country, volunteer foster parents log many sleepless nights bottle-feeding kittens every few hours. So researchers and shelters are trying to figure out ways to make it easier. “A lot of people think fostering is taking kittens home and playing with them,” said Penny Dougherty, chief executive director of Kitten Central of Placer County, an animal shelter she runs from her house in Newcastle, California, 30 miles northeast of Sacramento. Kitten Central receives most of its kittens from Placer County Animal Services. Dougherty cares for kittens up to one month old, as well as feral and stray cats with litters. Once the kittens weigh at least two pounds and have been spayed and neutered, she returns them to the agency so they can put them up for adoption. “They’re very happy to have our services,” said Dougherty, “because so many shelters have to euthanize.” When the days start getting longer, around January, cats start breeding. March is the beginning of what’s known among shelters as “kitten season.” The flow of kittens doesn’t slow down until November. “Kitten season is kind of one of the banes of shelter existence,” said Cynthia Delany, supervising shelter veterinarian at Yolo County Animal Services, in Woodland, west of Sacramento. “Six or seven months out of the year we’re just flooded with these little guys.” To steer clear of inundating shelters with newborn kittens, Delany’s advice is to leave any litters you might encounter alone unless they’re in immediate danger. Most of the time their mom will return, she said, so check back periodically. In an effort to lessen the load on foster parents and increase newborn kittens’ chances of survival, Mikel Maria Delgado, a postdoctoral researcher in the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California, Davis, is joining forces with Kitten Central and other animal shelters to figure out if there are optimum temperature and humidity levels that make it possible to feed newborn kittens less frequently. She has distributed incubators to the groups so that two or three kittens can be kept in each one for about three weeks. ---How long do kittens' eyes stay closed? During the first week-and-a-half of their lives, kittens’ eyes are sealed closed and their ears are folded up, making them practically blind and deaf. They’re born this way because their brains aren’t developed enough to use those senses. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1930803/how-kittens-go-from-clueless-to-cute ---+ For more information: If you find a litter of newborn kittens: https://eastbayspca.org/get-involved/community-resources/feral-cats/stray-cats-feral-cats-kittens/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Why Does Your Cat’s Tongue Feel Like Sandpaper? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9h_QtLol75I&t=24s Watch This Bee Build Her Bee-jeweled Nest https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oPbH1YhsdP8 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay to Be Smart: Why Do Disney Princesses All Look Like Babies? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1gzpEktyKo PBS Eons: The Story of Saberteeth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hbjIhPHRZgc ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
Views: 213620 Deep Look
Watch Flesh-Eating Beetles Strip Bodies to the Bone | Deep Look
 
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Dermestid Beetles are fast and fastidious eaters. They can pick a carcass clean in just days leaving even the most delicate bone structures intact. This makes them the perfect tool for museum scientists-- if you keep them far, far away from valuable collections. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt In nature, Dermestid Beetles are death-homing devices. They’ll find a dead body about a week after death and lay eggs in the drying flesh. The larvae emerge with a voracious appetite, outgrowing their skins six to eight times in just days before pupating, becoming adults and flying away to start a new colony. These Dermestid Beetles at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at UC Berkeley are direct descendants from the original colony established in this museum in 1924. The process now used at museums around the world was pioneered here. These are the beetles you see here in this flesh-eating beetles time lapse. Scientists in the prep lab downstairs receive nearly a thousand carcasses a year. It’s their job to preserve each animal for long-term use in the collections upstairs. And the work is not for the squeamish. What makes beetles ideal for cleaning museum specimens is that they’re fast and fastidious eaters. They can pick a carcass clean while leaving even the most delicate bone structures intact. It takes a large beetle colony 24 – 48 hours to clean the bones of small animals like rabbits and owls, and they can work on 100 - 200 specimens at a time. Larger animals like deer or coyotes take about a week. But the alliance between beetles and museum is an uneasy one. Downstairs the beetles are a critical tool. But if Dermestids got loose upstairs, they could wreak havoc in the library stacks, munching through specimen drawers and ruining entire collections. --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww Related videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Can Microbes Solve Murder Mysteries? - Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRUt9pqMCSg The Surprising Ways Death Shapes Our Lives - BrainCraft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Joalg73L_gw Do Animals Mourn Their Dead? - It's Okay to Be Smart (ft. BrainCraft and Gross Science!) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHJDmMSKlHM --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #dermestids #dermestidbeetle
Views: 2032170 Deep Look
How Do Sharks and Rays Use Electricity to Find Hidden Prey? | Deep Look
 
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When it comes to spotting prey, sharks and rays have a secret sense beyond sight and smell. Tiny goo-filled organs called Ampullae of Lorenzini detect the invisible electric fields produced by all living creatures. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. How do Sharks and Rays Sense Electric Fields? Most animals don’t have the ability to detect electric fields. But sharks, rays, skates and sawfish — members of a group called Elasmobranchii — are masters of detecting electric signals. It’s one of their defining features. Elasmobranchs have specialized organs called Ampullae of Lorenzini. These tiny structures allow them to home in on weak bioelectric fields generated by nearby prey. Elasmobranch’s electrosensory organs are named after a 17th century Italian physician, Stefano Lorenzini, who first identified them while dissecting an electric ray. Lorenzini noticed dozens of tiny pores around the animal’s mouth. Each of the pores led to jelly-filled canals that ended in pocket-like structures that he called ampullae, the Latin word for a type of round-bottomed flask. Animals emit low frequency electric fields due to a process known as osmoregulation. This process allows the concentration of ions (charged atoms or molecules) to flow between the inside of our bodies and the outside. In order for our cells to stay intact, the flow of ions needs to be balanced. But balanced doesn’t necessarily mean equal. The concentration of ions within a shrimp’s body is much lower than that of the sea water it swims in. Their voltage, or potential difference generated between the two concentrations across “leaky” surfaces, can then be detected by the ampullae. More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science --- Read the article for this video on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/08/11/sharks-and-rays-sense-electricity-fish-cant-hide/ #deeplook
Views: 323028 Deep Look
Samurai Wasps Say 'Smell Ya Later, Stink Bugs' | Deep Look
 
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Support Deep Look on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Yep, brown marmorated stink bugs are stinky, but that’s not the worst thing about them. They're imported agricultural pests eating their way across North America. But a native enemy from Asia – the tiny samurai wasp – has a particularly nasty method of stopping stink bugs in their tracks. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is an ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. --- It looks rather harmless at first glance. With a speckled exterior and a shield-like shape, the brown marmorated stink bug doesn’t appear to be any different from any other six-legged insect that might pop up in your garden. But this particular bug, which arrived in the U.S. from Asia in the mid-1990s and smells like old socks when it is squashed, is a real nuisance. Not only can it invade homes by the thousands in the wintertime, it’s one formidable agricultural pest, eating millions of dollars of peaches, apples and other crops since 2010. Scientists are now investigating a new tactic in the war on the stink bugs: the possibility of relying on one of the bug’s natural enemies, the samurai wasp. Also native to Asia, this parasitic wasp keeps the stink bug population in check there. How? ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1937639/samurai-wasps-say-smell-ya-later-stink-bugs ---+ For more information: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Research at Oregon State University http://bit.ly/2GB8RFs ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Hairworms Eat a Cricket Alive and Control Its Mind https://youtu.be/YB6O7jS_VBM Jerusalem Crickets Only Date Drummers https://youtu.be/mHbwC-AIyTE Turret Spiders Launch Sneak Attacks From Tiny Towers https://youtu.be/9bEjYunwByw ---+ Shoutout! 🏆Congratulations 🏆to bujur10514, Ace _YT13, Iridescent Moonbeam, Salina Tran, and Noke Noke over at the Deep Look Community Tab, for correctly identifying the term 'Thigmotaxis:' https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-3SbfTPJsL8fJAPKiVqBLg/community?lb=UgwzgP-aDFmzCVObZZN4AaABCQ ---+ Thank you to our Top Patreon Supporters ($10+ per month)! Bill Cass, Justin Bull, Daniel Weinstein, David Deshpande, Daisuke Goto, Karen Reynolds, Yidan Sun, Elizabeth Ann Ditz, KW, Shirley Washburn, Tanya Finch, johanna reis, Shelley Pearson Cranshaw, Johnnyonnyful, Levi Cai, Jeanine Womble, Michael Mieczkowski, SueEllen McCann, TierZoo, James Tarraga, Willy Nursalim, Aurora Mitchell, Marjorie D Miller, Joao Ascensao, PM Daeley, Two Box Fish, Tatianna Bartlett, Monica Albe, Jason Buberel ---+ Follow KQED Science and Deep Look: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kqedscience/ Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science on kqed.org: http://www.kqed.org/science Facebook Watch: https://www.facebook.com/DeepLookPBS/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/deeplook ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by the National Science Foundation, the Templeton Religion Trust, the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #stinkbugs #wildlife
Views: 220177 Deep Look
Want a Whole New Body? Ask This Flatworm How | Deep Look
 
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Planarians are tiny googly-eyed flatworms with an uncanny ability: They can regrow their entire bodies, even a new head. So how do they do it? You can learn more about CuriosityStream at https://curiositystream.com/deeplook Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Nelson Hall wants you to know that the googly-eyed flatworm he just sliced into four pieces is going to be OK. Three of the flatworm’s four pieces have started to wriggle away from each other and its head is moving in circles under Hall’s microscope. “The head will just go off and do its own thing,” said Hall, a doctoral student of bioengineering at Stanford University. But in three weeks, the head, as well as the other pieces, will each have grown into a complete flatworm just like the one Hall sliced up, dark brown and about a half-inch long. Hall and researchers around the world are hard at work trying to understand how these flatworms, called planarians, use powerful stem cells to regenerate their entire bodies, an ability humans can only dream of. Animals like starfish, salamanders and crabs can regrow a tail or a leg. Planarians, on the other hand, can regrow their entire bodies – even their heads, which only a few animals can do. ---What is the difference between healing and regeneration? When we suffer a severe injury, the best we can hope for is that our wounds will heal. “Healing is more like closing the wound and cleaning debris. It’s too short of a process to have tissue replacement,” said Hall. “Regeneration is replacing the tissue that was lost.” ---What are pluripotent stem cells? If planarians can regrow body parts, why can’t we? Key to planarians’ regenerative ability are powerful cells called pluripotent stem cells, which make up one-fifth of their bodies and can grow into every new body part. Humans only have pluripotent stem cells during the embryonic stage, before birth. After that, we mostly lose our ability to sprout new organs. “We have a couple of tissues that can regenerate, like the liver, the outer layers of the skin and the inner layers of the intestine, and the bone marrow,” said Dr. Stephen Badylak, Deputy Director of the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh. “But the way we heal most tissues is by forming scar tissue.” Scientists hope that studying planarians could lead to treatments for humans in which our stem cells could be coaxed one day to regrow severed limbs or sick organs. ---How to grow a fingertip. Doctors are limited in what they can currently do to help people who lose a limb or part of one. Badylak, who doesn’t study planarians, has developed a treatment at the University of Pittsburgh that helps patients regrow their fingertips after an accident. He applies a powder made of animal collagen and substances that stimulate cells to grow, to help form a scaffold that attracts stem cells from the parts of the nail that weren’t cut off. The stem cells regrow the fingertip, which isn’t identical to the one that was cut off, but is functional. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1933246/want-a-whole-new-body-ask-this-flatworm-how ---+ For more information: Regeneration in Nature: Francesc Cebrià’s blog on animal regeneration: https://regenerationinnature.wordpress.com ---+ More great Deep Look episodes: Daddy Longlegs Risk Life ... and Especially Limb ... to Survive https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjDmH8zhp6o Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-0SFWPLaII These Fighting Fruit Flies Are Superheroes of Brain Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yvd3X1N0jUU ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Reactions: Why Tardigrades are Some of the Most Hardcore Critters on the Planet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEW1_Pba3z4 It’s Okay to Be Smart: Is Height All In Our Genes? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cuO5OSDMbw ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by the National Science Foundation, the Templeton Religion Trust, the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #planaria #flatworm
Views: 617146 Deep Look
Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look
 
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When you live by the seashore, one day you're in, the next day you're lunch. So these crabs don the latest in seaweed outerwear and anemone accessories to blend in. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * As fans of the hit TV show Project Runway know, in fashion one day you’re in, and the next day you’re out. Nowhere is this truer than in the animal kingdom. One minute you’re a crab minding your own business in a tide pool, and the next, you’re a seagull’s snack. Unless you’re a decorator crab, that is, and you use this season’s seaweed to save your life. There are nearly 700 species of decorator crabs around the world – about a dozen of them in California, where they live in tide pools and kelp forests. They camouflage by decorating their heads, or their entire bodies depending on the species, with pieces of seaweed, anemones or other materials around them, which they attach securely to a natural Velcro that grows right on their bodies. “It’s not a glue or anything; they have these hooked hairs all over their shells,” said biologist Jay Stachowicz, who studies decorator crabs at the University of California, Davis. “Through microscope photography we can see that it looks just like Velcro, except probably even better, even more hooked.” These golden-colored hairs are thick and curled to form long rows. Some species of decorator crabs have these rows of hooked hairs only on their heads; others, on their entire bodies. At his lab at UC Davis’ Bodega Marine Lab in Bodega Bay, Stachowicz collects crabs off the coast, places them in tanks, gives them some seaweed and watches them go to work. The process is more exciting than watching Project Runway contestants create their confections, if you consider that the crabs are making it work with much more simple tools than the designers. And the stakes are much higher. --- How does a decorator crab camouflage? A pink Cryptic kelp crab, for example, cuts a piece of purple seaweed with one of its claws. Then the crab holds the piece of seaweed above its head, the only part of its body where it has hooked hairs. It moves the piece of seaweed back and forth, until it’s tightly wedged inside the hooks. Then it repeats the process. The result is a “hat” of bushy seaweed that protrudes beyond its head. With the seaweed, the crab is concealing two of its four antennae, short protuberances near its mouth. These antennae are constantly aflutter. The crab uses them to smell, and they could call the attention of predators even when the crab remains still. By hiding the movement of the antennae, the seaweed visor protects the crab from birds pecking around in the tide pools and aquatic predators like fish and octopuses. --- What is Tim Gunn’s most famous quote? The beloved advisor to contestants of Project Runway has many memorable phrases. But we’re pretty confident that one of his best-known sayings is “Make it work!” ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/05/09/decorator-crabs-make-high-fashion-at-low-tide/ ---+ For more information: Jay Stachowicz Lab at the University of California, Davis: http://www.eve.ucdavis.edu/stachowicz/research.shtml ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3BHrzDHoYo Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww Watch These Frustrated Squirrels Go Nuts! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZUjQtJGaSpk ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Above The Noise: Why Do Our Brains Love Fake News? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNmwvntMF5A&index=1&list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV Braincraft: Do You Own Your Cells? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIFTIYZrm0g&list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV&index=4 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, California, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 550293 Deep Look
What Gall! The Crazy Cribs of Parasitic Wasps | Deep Look
 
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Plenty of animals build their homes in oak trees. But some very teeny, tricky wasps make the tree do all the work. And each miniature mansion the trees build for the wasps' larvae is weirder and more flamboyant than the next. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * “What nerve!” you might say. What… gall! And you’d be right. The wasps are called gall-inducers. ---+ What do oak galls look like? If you’ve ever spent a Summer or Fall around oak trees – such as the stalwart Valley Oak – Quercus lobata, or the stately Blue Oak, Quercus douglasii – you may be familiar with the large, vaguely fruity-looking objects clinging to the branches and leaves. Commonly called oak apples, these growths are the last thing you’d want to put in your mouth. They are intensely bitter, loaded with tannin compounds – the same compounds that in modest amounts give red wine its pleasant dryness, and tea its refreshing earthy tang. That said, the oak apple’s powerful astringency has been prized for millennia. Tanning leather, making ink or dye, and cleaning wounds have been but a few of the gall’s historical uses. But on closer inspection of these oaks – and many other plants and trees such as willows, alders, manzanitas, or pines – you can find a rogue’s gallery of smaller galls. Carefully peeking under leaves, along the stems and branches, or around the flower buds and acorns will likely lead you to unexpected finds. Smooth ones. Spiky ones. Long skinny ones, flat ones, lumpy, boxy ones. From the size of a golf ball down to that of a poppy seed. These structures wear shades of yellow, green, brown, purple, pink and red – and sometimes all of the above. A single tree may be host to dozens of types of gall, each one caused by a specific organism. And their shapes range from the sublime to the downright creepy. One tree may be encrusted with them, like a Christmas tree laden with ornaments and tinsel; and the next tree over may be almost completely free of galls. Why? It’s a mystery. ---+ How do oak galls form? Galls are generally formed when an insect, or its larvae, introduce chemicals into a specific location, to push the plant’s growth hormones into overdrive. This can result in a great profusion of normal cells, increased size of existing cells, or the alteration of entire plant structures into new, alien forms. Lots of creatures cause them; midges, mites, aphids, flies, even bacteria and viruses. But the undisputed champs are a big family of little wasps called Cynipids– rarely exceeding the size of a mosquito, a quarter of an inch in length. “These tiny wasps cannot sting,” says Dr. Kathy Schick, Assistant Specialist/Curatorial Assistant at the Essig Museum of Entomology at UC Berkeley. “Gall-inducers are fascinating in that they are very specialized to their organ of the host plant.” ---+ What are oak galls? These wasp houses are not homes exactly, but more akin to nurseries. The galls serve as an ideal environment for wasp larvae, whether it is a single offspring, or dozens. The tree is tricked into generating outsize amounts of soft, pillowy tissue inside each gall, on which the larvae gladly gorge themselves as they grow. Full article: http://blogs.kqed.org/science/2014/11/18/what-gall-the-crazy-cribs-of-parasitic-wasps/ ---+ See more great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Inside the World of Fire Ants! https://youtu.be/rz3UdLEWQ60 Gross Science: Can Spider Venom Cure Erectile Dysfunction? https://youtu.be/5i9X8h17VNM ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Lizards Have Been Playing Rock-Paper-Scissors for 15 Million Years https://youtu.be/rafdHxBwIbQ Stinging Scorpion vs. Pain-Defying Mouse https://youtu.be/w-K_YtWqMro ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 415760 Deep Look
So ... Sometimes Fireflies Eat Other Fireflies | Deep Look
 
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Most firefly flashes are pure romance, a sexy form of skywriting. But one variety copies the mating signals of others to lure them to their demise. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Most of the blinking signals that fireflies send out are intended to attract mates. But researchers are finding out that in some cases, these romantic overtures are not all wine and roses. Females of one firefly group, the genus Photuris, have learned to copy other fireflies’ flashes to attract the males of those species. When one arrives, she pounces, first sucking his blood, then devouring his insides. These “femme fatale” fireflies live throughout the Eastern U.S alongside the fireflies they target. They can develop widely varying light shows to target whatever species are in the area. The predatory habits of Photuris are just one example of how much individual firefly signals can differ from one another. The male Common Eastern Firefly, for example, is known for his fish hook-shaped aerial maneuver, which he repeats at six-second intervals. That characteristic move has earned the species the nickname “Big Dipper.” The male Big Dipper hopes this bit of skywriting will get him noticed by females hiding in the grass. If the female likes what she sees, her reply comes as a single pulse from her smaller, heart-shaped lantern. That’s his invitation to land and mate. Most firefly interactions follow the same pattern, with roving males advertising themselves to concealed females. Within a species, the back-and-forth signals are so reliable that it’s easy to attract the male fireflies with even a simple decoy. Firefly light is biochemical. But fireflies like the Big Dippers do much more with chemistry than just make light. They can mix together an array of other compounds, including invisible pheromones for mating, and others called lucibufagins (“loosa-BOOF-ajins”) that ward off predators like spiders and birds. At some point, the Photuris “femme fatale” fireflies lost the ability to make their own lucibufagins. So instead of chemistry, these bigger, stronger fireflies became adept at imitation, and evolved to turn into insect vampires to take these valuable compounds from other fireflies to boost their own defenses. And it works. In experiments, predators avoided Photuris fireflies that had recently preyed on other fireflies. --- Where do fireflies live? There are fireflies worldwide, but in the U.S., you’ll find them in the Midwest and Eastern U.S. There are a few species in the West, including the California Pink Glow-worm. --- Why do fireflies flash? Mostly, it’s to attract mates. One sex, usually the male, uses a more elaborate flash pattern to get the attention of the opposite sex. Then the female signals her interest with a simpler flash. --- Why do fireflies glow after they die? The chemicals in the firefly that make light, luciferin and luciferase, remain viable after it dies, and the reaction that creates the light thrives on oxygen, which is of course plentiful in the air. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/2018/02/27/so-sometimes-fireflies-eat-other-fireflies ---+ For more information: Join Fireflyers International: https://fireflyersinternational.net/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Snail Sex https://youtu.be/UOcLaI44TXA Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker https://youtu.be/NpJNeGqExrc ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: When Giant Fungi Ruled https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-G64DagHuOg Origin Of Everything: Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1189527 Deep Look
Why Jellyfish Float Like a Butterfly—And Sting Like a Bee | Deep Look
 
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Jellyfish don’t have a heart, or blood, or even a brain. They’ve survived five mass extinctions. And you can find them in every ocean, from pole to pole. What’s their secret? Keeping it simple, but with a few dangerous tricks. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. --- Why do Jellyfish Sting? Jellyfish sting to paralyze their prey. They use special cells called nematocysts. Jellyfish don’t have a brain or a central nervous system to control these stinging cells, so each one has it’s own trip wire, called a cnidocil. When triggered, the nematocyst cells act like a combination of fishing hook and hypodermic needle. They fire a barb into the flesh of the jellyfish’s prey at 10,000 times the force of gravity – making it one of the fastest mechanisms in the animal kingdom. As the barb latches on, a thread-like filament bathed in toxin erupts from the barb and delivers the poison. The nematocyst only works if the barb can penetrate the skin, which is why some jellies are more dangerous to humans than others. The smooth-looking tentacles of a sea anemone (a close relative of jellies that also has nematocyst cells) feel like sandpaper to the touch. Their nematocysts are firing, but the barbs aren’t powerful enough to puncture your skin. --- Read the article for this video on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/09/29/why-jellyfish-float-like-a-butterfly-and-sting-like-a-bee/ --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww You're Not Hallucinating. That's Just Squid Skin. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wtLrlIKvJE The Fantastic Fur of Sea Otters https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zxqg_um1TXI --- Related videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! I Don't Think You're Ready for These Jellies - It’s Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a4DQQe5p5gc Why Neuroscientists Love Kinky Sea Slugs - Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGHiyWjjhHY What Physics Teachers Get Wrong About Tides! | Space Time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwChk4S99i4 --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 448800 Deep Look
Jerusalem Crickets Only Date Drummers | Deep Look
 
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With their big heads and beady black eyes, Jerusalem crickets aren't winning any beauty contests. But that doesn't stop them from finding mates. They use their bulbous bellies to serenade each other with some furious drumming. Support Deep Look on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Come join us on our Deep Look Communty Tab: https://www.youtube.com/user/KQEDDeepLook/community -- DEEP LOOK is an ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Potato Bug. Child of the Earth. Old Bald-Headed Man. Skull Insects. Devil’s Baby. Spawn of Satan. There’s a fairly long list of imaginative nicknames that refer to Jerusalem crickets, those six-legged insects with eerily humanlike faces and prominent striped abdomens. And they can get quite large, too: Some measure over 3 inches long and weigh more than a mouse, so they can be quite unnerving if you see them crawling around in your backyard in summertime. One individual who finds them compelling, and not creepy, has been studying Jerusalem crickets for over 40 years: David Weissman, a research associate in entomology affiliated with the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. He’s now considered the world’s foremost expert, since no one else has been as captivated or singlemindedly devoted to learning more about them. While much of their general behavior is still not widely understood, Jerusalem crickets typically live solitary lives underground. They’ll emerge at night to scavenge for roots, tubers and smaller insects for their meals. And it’s also when they come out to serenade potential partners with a musical ritual: To attract a mate, adult crickets use their abdomens to drum the ground and generate low-frequency sound waves. If a male begins drumming and a female senses the vibrations, she’ll respond with a longer drumming sequence so that he’ll have enough time to track her down. The drumming can vary between one beat every other second up to 40 beats per second. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1932923/jerusalem-crickets-only-date-drummers ---+ For more information: JERUSALEM! CRICKET? (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus); Origins of a Common Name https://goo.gl/Y49GAK ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The House Centipede is Fast, Furious, and Just So Extra | Deep Look https://youtu.be/q2RtbP1d7Kg Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth | Deep Look https://youtu.be/sj8pFX9SOXE Turret Spiders Launch Sneak Attacks From Tiny Towers | Deep Look https://youtu.be/9bEjYunwByw ---+ Shoutout! 🏆Congratulations 🏆 to Piss Dog, Trent Geer, Mario Stankovski, Jelani Shillingford, and Chaddydaddy who were the first to correctly 3 the species of Jerusalem Cricket relatives of the Stenopelmatoidea superfamily in our episode, over at the Deep Look Community Tab: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-3SbfTPJsL8fJAPKiVqBLg/community?lb=UgxEuwVr4FmBNg-wtCJ4AaABCQ (hat tip to Antonio Garcia, who shared 3 full species names) ---+ Follow KQED Science and Deep Look: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kqedscience/ Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science on kqed.org: http://www.kqed.org/science Facebook Watch: https://www.facebook.com/DeepLookPBS/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/deeplook ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by the National Science Foundation, the Templeton Religion Trust, the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #jerusalemcrickets #wildlife
Views: 527073 Deep Look
This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards | Deep Look
 
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They may look serene as they glide across the surface of a stream, but don't be fooled by water striders. They're actually searching for prey for whom a babbling brook quickly becomes an inescapable death trap. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * With the drought officially over and the summer heat upon us, people all across California are heading outdoors. For many, that means a day on the river or relaxing by the lake. The wet winter means there’s plenty of habitat for one of nature’s most curious creatures. Water striders, also called pond skaters, seem to defy gravity. You’ve probably seen them flitting across the water’s surface, dodging ripples as they patrol streams and quiet backwater eddies. Scientists like David Hu at Georgia Institute of Technology study how water striders move and how they make their living as predators lurking on the water’s surface. It’s an amazing combination of biology and physics best understood by looking up close. Very close. --- What are water striders? The common water strider (Gerris lacustris) is an insect typically found in slowly moving freshwater streams and ponds. They are able to move on the water's surface without sinking. They are easy to spot because they create circular waves on the surface of the water. --- How do water striders walk on water? Water tends to stick to itself (cohesion), especially at the surface where it meets the air (surface tension). Water striders don’t weigh very much and they spread their weight out with their long legs. Striders are also covered in microscopic hairs called micro-setae that repel water. Instead of sinking into the water, their legs push down and create dimples. --- What do water striders eat? Water striders are predators and scavengers. They use their ability to walk on water to their advantage, primarily eating other insects that fall into the water at get trapped by the surface tension. A water strider uses its tube-shaped proboscis to penetrate their prey’s exoskeleton, inject digestive enzymes and suck out the prey’s pre-digested innards. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/08/01/this-is-why-water-striders-make-terrible-lifeguards/ ---+ For more information: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v424/n6949/abs/nature01793.html?foxtrotcallback=true ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j5F3z1iP0Ic&list=PLdKlciEDdCQDxBs0SZgTMqhszst1jqZhp&index=3 How Do Pelicans Survive Their Death-Defying Dives? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BfEboMmwAMw Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwQcv7TyX04 Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el_lPd2oFV4&list=PLdKlciEDdCQDxBs0SZgTMqhszst1jqZhp ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Beavers: The Smartest Thing in Fur Pants | It’s Okay To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zm6X77ShHa8 Can Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes Help Fight Disease? | Above The Noise https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CB_h7aheAEM How Do Glaciers Move? | It’s Okay To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnlPrdMoQ1Y Your Biological Clock at Work | BrainCraft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Q8djfQlYwQ ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1076270 Deep Look
These 'Resurrection Plants' Spring Back to Life in Seconds | Deep Look
 
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Rain falls and within seconds dried-up moss that's been virtually dead for decades unfurls in an explosion of green. The microscopic creatures living in the moss come out to feed. Scientists say the genes in these “resurrection plants” might one day protect crops from drought. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. How does moss grow? Mosses don’t have roots. Their porous cells absorb water like a sponge, whenever it’s available. When there’s no rain, mosses dry out completely and stop photosynthesizing. That is, they stop using carbon dioxide and the light of the sun to grow. They’re virtually dead, reduced to a pile of chemicals, and can stay that way for years. Researchers have found dry, 100-year-old moss samples in a museum that came back to life when water was added. Read an extended article on how scientists hope to use resurrection plants to create crops that can survive drought: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/06/25/these-resurrection-plants-spring-back-to-life-in-seconds/ -- More great Deep Look episodes: Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Where Does the Smell of Rain Come From? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lGcE5x8s0B8 KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 345926 Deep Look
Watch These Cunning Snails Stab and Swallow Fish Whole | Deep Look
 
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Join Deep Look on Patreon NOW! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Cone Snails have an arsenal of tools and weapons under their pretty shells. These reef-dwelling hunters nab their prey in microseconds, then slowly eat them alive. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. New research shows that cone snails — ocean-dwelling mollusks known for their brightly colored shells — attack their prey faster than almost any member of the animal kingdom. There are hundreds of species of these normally slow-moving hunters found in oceans across the world. They take down fish, worms and other snails using a hollow, harpoon-like tooth that acts like a spear and a hypodermic needle. When they impale their prey, cone snails inject a chemical cocktail that subdues their meal and gives them time to dine at their leisure. Cone snails launch their harpoons so quickly that scientists were previously unable to capture the movement on camera, making it impossible to calculate just how speedy these snails are. Now, using super-high-speed video, researchers have filmed the full flight of the harpoon for the first time. From start to finish, the harpoon’s flight takes less than 200 micro-seconds. That’s one five-thousandth of a second. It launches with an acceleration equivalent to a bullet fired from a pistol. So how do these sedentary snails pull off such a high-octane feat? Hydrostatic pressure — the pressure from fluid — builds within the half of the snail’s proboscis closest to its body, locked behind a tight o-ring of muscle. When it comes time to strike, the muscle relaxes, and the venom-laced fluid punches into the harpoon’s bulbous base. This pressure launches the harpoon out into the snail’s unsuspecting prey. As fast as the harpoon launches, it comes to an even more abrupt stop. The base of the harpoon gets caught at the end of the proboscis so the snail can reel in its meal. The high-speed action doesn’t stop with the harpoon. Cone snail venom acts fast, subduing fish in as little as a few seconds. The venom is filled with unique molecules, broadly referred to as conotoxins. The composition of cone snail venom varies from species to species, and even between individuals of the same species, creating a library of potential new drugs that researchers are eager to mine. In combination, these chemicals work together to rapidly paralyze a cone snail’s prey. Individually, some molecules from cone snail venom can provide non-opioid pain relief, and could potentially treat Parkinson’s disease or cancer. --- Where do cone snails live? There are 500 species of cone snails living in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the Caribbean and Red Seas, and the Florida coast. --- Can cone snails kill humans? Most of them do not. Only eight of those 500 species, including the geography cone, have been known to kill humans. --- Why are scientists interested in cone snails? Cone snail venom is derived from thousands of small molecules call peptides that the snail makes under its shell. These peptides produce different effects on cells, which scientists hope to manipulate in the treatment of various diseases. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://wp.me/p6iq8L-84uC ---+ For more information: Here’s what WebMD says about treating a cone snail sting: https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/cone-snail-sting ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning https://youtu.be/O-0SFWPLaII ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Space Time: Quantum Mechanics Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-IfmgyXs7z8&list=PLsPUh22kYmNCGaVGuGfKfJl-6RdHiCjo1 Above The Noise: Endangered Species: Worth Saving from Extinction? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5eTqjzQZDY ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1052143 Deep Look
Turret Spiders Launch Sneak Attacks From Tiny Towers | Deep Look
 
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There are strange little towers on the forest floor. Neat, right? Nope. Inside hides a spider that's cunning, patient and ruthless. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt Please follow us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Most Bay Area hikers pass right by without ever noticing, but a careful eye can spot tiny towers rising up from the forest floor. These mysterious little tubes, barely an inch high, are the homes of a particularly sneaky predator -- the California turret spider. “To me, the turrets look just like the rook in a chess set,” said Trent Pearce, a naturalist for the East Bay Regional Park District, as he scanned the terrain at Briones Regional Park. “The spiders themselves are super burly – like a tiny tarantula the size of your pinky nail.” Turret spiders build their towers along creek beds and under fallen trees in forested areas throughout Central and Northern California. They use whatever mud, moss, bark and leaves they can find nearby, making their turrets extremely well camouflaged. They line the inside of their tiny castles with pearly white silk, which makes the structure supple and resilient Each turret leads down to a burrow that can extend six inches underground. The spiders spend their days down there in the dark, protected from the sun and predators. As night falls, they climb up to the entrance of the turrets to wait for unsuspecting prey like beetles to happen by. Turret spiders are ambush hunters. While remaining hidden inside their turret, they’re able to sense the vibrations created by their prey’s footsteps. That’s when the turret spider strikes, busting out of the hollow tower like an eight legged jack-in-the-box. With lightning speed the spider swings its fangs down like daggers, injecting venom into its prey before dragging it down into the burrow. “It’s like the scene in a horror movie where the monster appears out of nowhere – you can’t not jump,” Pearce said. --- What do turret spiders eat? Turret spiders mostly ground-dwelling arthropods like beetles but they will also attack flying insects like moths that happen to land near their turrets. --- Are turret spiders dangerous to people? Turret spiders are nocturnal so it’s rare for them to interact with humans by accident. They tend to retreat into their underground burrow if they feel the vibrations of human footsteps. They do have fangs and venom but are not generally considered to be dangerous compared to other spiders. If you leave them alone, you shouldn’t have anything to fear from turret spiders. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2019/01/15/turret-spiders-launch-sneak-attacks-from-tiny-towers/ ---+ For more information: Learn to Look for Them, and California’s Unique “Turret Spiders” are Everywhere https://baynature.org/article/and-this-little-spider-stayed-home/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: For These Tiny Spiders, It's Sing or Get Served | Deep Look https://youtu.be/y7qMqAgCqME Praying Mantis Love is Waaay Weirder Than You Think | Deep Look https://youtu.be/EHo_9wnnUTE Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker | Deep Look https://youtu.be/NpJNeGqExrc ---+ Follow KQED Science and Deep Look: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kqedscience/ Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science on kqed.org: http://www.kqed.org/science Facebook Watch: https://www.facebook.com/DeepLookPBS/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/deeplook ---+ Shoutout! Congratulations to 🏆Iset4, MidKnight Fall7, jon pomeroy, Justin Felder3, and DrowsyTaurus26🏆, who were the first to correctly ID the species of spider in our episode - Antrodiaetus riversi (also known as Atypoides riversi) over at the Deep Look Community Tab: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-3SbfTPJsL8fJAPKiVqBLg/community?lb=UgxFKwljdtKxxD-xY6V4AaABCQ (hat tip to Edison Lewis10 for posting the entire family tree!) ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by the National Science Foundation, the Templeton Religion Trust, the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #spiders #wildlife
Views: 639788 Deep Look
Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning | Deep Look
 
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Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook (FYI - This episode is a *bit* more bloody that usual – especially a little after the 2-minute mark. Just letting you know in case flesh wounds aren’t your thing) The same blood-sucking leeches feared by hikers and swimmers are making a comeback... in hospitals. Once used for questionable treatments, leeches now help doctors complete complex surgeries to reattach severed body parts. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Leeches get a bad rap—but they might not deserve it. Yes, they’re creepy crawly blood-suckers. And they can instill an almost primal sense of disgust and revulsion. Humphrey Bogart’s character in the 1951 film The African Queen even went so far as to call them “filthy little devils.” But the humble leech is making a comeback. Contrary to the typical, derogatory definition of a human “leech,” this critter is increasingly playing a key role as a sidekick for scientists and doctors, simply by being its bloodthirsty self. Distant cousins of the earthworm, most leech species are parasites that feed on the blood of animals and humans alike. They are often found in freshwater and navigate either by swimming or by inching themselves along, using two suckers—one at each end of their body—to anchor themselves. Upon reaching an unsuspecting host, a leech will surreptitiously attach itself and begin to feed. It uses a triangular set of three teeth to cut in, and secretes a suite of chemicals to thin the blood and numb the skin so its presence goes undetected. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1921659/take-two-leeches-and-call-me-in-the-morning ---+ For more information: David Weisblat at UC Berkeley studies leeches development and evolution https://mcb.berkeley.edu/labs/weisblat/research.html Biologists recently reported that leeches in that region can provide a valuable snapshot of which animals are present in a particular area https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14772000.2018.1433729?journalCode=tsab20& ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpJNeGqExrc For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tfoYD8pAsMw Praying Mantis Love is Waaay Weirder Than You Think | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NHf47gI8w04&t=83s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Above the Noise: Cow Burps Are Warming the Planet | Reactions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnRFUSGz_ZM What a Dinosaur Looks Like Under a Microscope | Eons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rvgiDXc12k Hawking Radiation | Space Time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qPKj0YnKANw ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1419310 Deep Look
A Baby Dragonfly's Mouth Will Give You Nightmares | Deep Look
 
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Dragonflies might rule the skies, but their babies grow up underwater in a larva-eat-larva world. Luckily for them, they have a killer lip that snatches prey, Alien-style, at lightning speed. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * If adult dragonflies are known to be precise hunters, capable of turning on a dime and using their almost-360-degree vision to nab mosquitoes and flies in midair, their dragon-looking babies are even more fearsome. Dragonflies and damselflies lay their eggs in water. After they hatch, their larvae, also known as nymphs, spend months or years underwater growing wings on their backs. Without those versatile four wings that adults use to chase down prey, nymphs rely on a mouthpart they shoot out. It’s like a long, hinged arm that they keep folded under their head and it’s eerily similar to the snapping tongue-like protuberance the alien shoots out at Ripley in the sci-fi movie Aliens. A nymph’s eyesight is almost as precise as an adult dragonfly’s and when they spot something they want to eat, they extrude this mouthpart, called a labium, to engulf, grab, or impale their next meal and draw it back to their mouth. Only dragonfly and damselfly nymphs have this special mouthpart. “It’s like a built-in spear gun,” said Kathy Biggs, the author of guides to the dragonflies of California and the greater Southwest. With their labium, nymphs can catch mosquito larvae, worms and even small fish and tadpoles. “It’s obviously an adaptation to be a predator underwater, where it’s not easy to trap things,” said Dennis Paulson, a dragonfly biologist retired from the University of Puget Sound. Also known among biologists as a “killer lip,” the labium comes in two versions. There’s the spork-shaped labium that scoops up prey, and a flat one with a pair of pincers on the end that can grab or impale aquatic insects. -- How many years have dragonflies been around? Dragonflies have been around for 320 million years, said Ed Jarzembowski, who studies fossil dragonflies at the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology. That means they were here before the dinosaurs. -- How big did dragonflies used to be? Prehistoric dragonflies had a wingspan of 0.7 meters (almost 28 inches). That’s the wingspan of a small hawk today. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/09/12/a-baby-dragonflys-mouth-will-give-you-nightmares/ ---+ For more information: This web site, run by Kathy and David Biggs, has photos and descriptions of California dragonflies and damselflies and information on building a pond to attract the insects to your backyard: http://bigsnest.members.sonic.net/Pond/dragons/ The book "A Dazzle of Dragonflies," by Forrest Mitchell and James Lasswell, has good information on dragonfly nymphs. ---+ More great Deep Look episodes: Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el_lPd2oFV4 This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY&t=57s Daddy Longlegs Risk Life ... and Especially Limb ... to Survive https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjDmH8zhp6o This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2unnSK7WTE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: The Biggest Thing That Ever Flew https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scAp-fncp64 PBS Infinite Series: A Breakthrough in Higher Dimensional Spheres https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ciM6wigZK0w ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio stations in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration – exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #dragonflies #dragonflynymph
Views: 1428982 Deep Look
This Adorable Sea Slug is a Sneaky Little Thief | Deep Look
 
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Take the PBSDS survey: https://to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey Explore our VR slug and support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Nudibranchs may look cute, squishy and defenseless ... but watch out. These brightly-colored sea slugs aren't above stealing weapons from their prey. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. The summer months bring low morning tides along the California coast, providing an opportunity to see one of the state’s most unusual inhabitants, sea slugs. Also called nudibranchs, many of these relatives of snails are brightly colored and stand out among the seaweed and anemones living next to them in tidepools. “Some of them are bright red, blue, yellow -- you name it,” said Terry Gosliner, senior curator of invertebrate zoology and geology at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. “They're kind of designer slugs.” But without a protective shell, big jaws or sharp claws, how do these squishy little creatures get away with such flamboyant colors in a habitat full of predators? As it turns out, the nudibranchs’ colors serve as a warning to predators: These sea slugs are packing some very sophisticated defenses. And some aren’t above stealing weapons from their prey. Gosliner and Brenna Green and Emily Otstott, graduate students at San Francisco State University, were out at dawn earlier this summer searching tidepools and floating docks around the Bay Area. They want to learn more about how these delicate little sea slugs survive and how changing ocean temperatures might threaten their futures. Nudibranchs come in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes. Many accumulate toxic or bad-tasting chemicals from their prey, causing predators like fish and crabs to learn that the flashy colors mean the nudibranch wouldn’t make a good meal. --- What are nudibranchs? Nudibranchs are snails that lost their shell over evolutionary time. Since they don’t have a shell for protection, they have to use other ways to defend themselves like accumulating toxic chemicals in their flesh to make them taste bad to predators. Some species of nudibranchs eat relatives of jellyfish and accumulate the stingers within their bodies for defense. --- Why do nudibranchs have such bright colors? The bright colors serve as a signal to the nudibranch’s predators that they are not good to eat. If a fish or crab bites a nudibranch, it learns to associate the bad taste with the bright colors which tends to make them reluctant to bite a nudibranch with those colors in the future. --- What does nudibranch mean? The word nudibranch comes from Latin. It means naked gills. They got that name because some species of nudibranchs have an exposed ring of gills on their back that they use to breath. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1929993/this-adorable-sea-slug-is-a-sneaky-little-thief ---+ For more information: Learn more about Terry Gosliner’s work with nudibranchs https://www.calacademy.org/staff/ibss/invertebrate-zoology-and-geology/terrence-gosliner Learn more about Chris Lowe’s work with plankton http://lowe.stanford.edu/ Learn more about Jessica Goodheart’s study of nematocyst sequestration https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ivb.12154 ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: From Drifter to Dynamo: The Story of Plankton | Deep Look https://youtu.be/jUvJ5ANH86I For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look https://youtu.be/tfoYD8pAsMw The Amazing Life of Sand | Deep Look https://youtu.be/VkrQ9QuKprE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Why Are Hurricanes Getting Stronger? | Hot Mess https://youtu.be/2E1Nt7JQRzc When Fish Wore Armor | Eons https://youtu.be/5pVTZH1LyTw Why Do We Wash Our Hands After Going to the Bathroom? | Origin of Everything https://youtu.be/fKlpGs34-_g ---+ Follow KQED Science and Deep Look: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kqedscience/ Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science on kqed.org: http://www.kqed.org/science Facebook Watch: https://www.facebook.com/DeepLookPBS/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/deeplook ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook #nudibranch #seaslug
Views: 535271 Deep Look
How Do Pelicans Survive Their Death-Defying Dives? | Deep Look
 
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Brown pelicans hit the water at breakneck speed when they catch fish. Performing such dangerous plunges requires technique, equipment, and 30 million years of practice. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * California’s brown pelicans are one of two pelican species (once considered the same) that plunge from the air to hunt. The rest, like the white pelican, bob for fish at the water’s surface. The shape of its bill is essential to the birds' survival in these dives, reducing “hydrodynamic drag” — buckling forces, caused by the change from air to water — to almost zero. It’s something like the difference between slapping the water with your palm and chopping it, karate-style. And while all birds have light, air-filled bones, pelican skeletons take it to an extreme. As they dive, they inflate special air sacs around their neck and belly, cushioning their impact and allowing them to float. Even their celebrated pouches play a role. An old limerick quips, “A remarkable bird is a pelican / Its beak can hold more than its belly can…” That beak is more than just a fishing net. It’s also a parachute that pops open underwater, helping to slow the bird down. Behind the pelican’s remarkable resilience (and beaks) lies 30 million years of evolutionary stasis, meaning they haven’t changed much over time. --- What do pelicans eat? Pelicans eat small fish like anchovies, sardines, and smelt. --- How long to pelicans live? Pelicans live 15-25 years in the wild. --- How big are pelicans? Brown pelicans are small for pelicans, but still big for birds, with a 6-8 foot wingspan. Their average weight is 3.5 kg. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/04/25/volunteer-brown-pelican-count-aims-to-measure-recovery-of-once-endangered-birds/ ---+ For more information: U.S. Fish and Wildlife brown pelican page https://ecos.fws.gov/ecp0/profile/speciesProfile?spcode=B02L ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Fantastic Fur of Sea Otters https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zxqg_um1TXI How Do Sharks and Rays Use Electricity to Find Hidden Prey? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JDPFR6n8tAQ ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Physics Girl: Why Outlets Spark When Unplugging https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g1Ld8D2bnJM Gross Science: Everything You Didn’t Want to Know About Snot https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=shEPwQPQG4I ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1012831 Deep Look
The House Centipede is Fast, Furious, and Just So Extra | Deep Look
 
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Please follow us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Take the PBSDS survey: https://to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey CORRECTION, 9/26/2018: This episode of Deep Look contains an error in the scientific name of the house centipede. It is Scutigera coleoptrata, not coleoptera. We regret the error. The viewers who caught the mistake will receive a free Deep Look T-shirt, and our gratitude. Thanks for keeping tabs on us! Voracious, venomous and hella leggy, house centipedes are masterful predators with a knack for fancy footwork. But not all their legs are made for walking, they put some to work in other surprising ways. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt Recognizable for their striking (some might say, repulsive) starburst-like shape, house centipedes have far fewer than the 100 legs their name suggests. They’re born with a modest eight, a count that grows to 30 as they reach adulthood. If 30 legs sound like more than one critter really needs – perhaps it is. Over the last 450 million years or so, when centipedes split off from other arthropods, evolution has turned some of those walking limbs into other useful and versatile tools. When it hunts, for example, the house centipede uses its legs as a rope to restrain prey in a tactic called “lassoing.” The tip of each leg is so finely segmented and flexible that it can coil around its victim to prevent escape. The centipede’s venom-injecting fangs, called forciples, are also modified legs. Though shorter and thicker than the walking limbs, they are multi-jointed , which makes them far more dexterous than the fangs of insects and spiders, which hinge in only one plane. Because of this dexterity, the centipede’s forciples not only inject venom, but also hold prey in place while the centipede feeds. Then they take a turn as a grooming tool. The centipede passes its legs through the forciples to clean and lubricate their sensory hairs. Scientists have long noticed that because of their length and the fact that the centipede holds them aloft when it walks, these back legs give the appearance of a second pair antennae. The house centipede looks like it has two heads. In evolution, when an animal imitates itself, it’s called automimicry. Automimicry occurs in some fish, birds and butterflies, and usually serves to divert predators. New research suggests that’s not the whole story with the house centipede. Electron microscopy conducted on the centipede’s legs has revealed as many sensory hairs, or sensilla, on them as on the antennae. The presence of so many sensory hairs suggest the centipede’s long back legs are not merely dummies used in a defensive ploy, but serve a special function, possibly in mate selection. During courtship, both the male and female house centipede slowly raise and lower their antennae and back legs, followed by mutual tapping and probing. --- Are house centipedes dangerous? Though they do have venom, house centipedes don’t typically bite humans. --- Where do house centipedes live? House centipedes live anywhere where the humidity hovers around 90 percent. That means the moist places in the house: garages, bathrooms, basements. Sometimes their presence can indicate of a leaky roof or pipe. --- Do house centipedes have 100 legs? No. An adult house centipede has 30. Only one group of centipedes, called the soil centipedes, actually have a hundred legs or more. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/09/25/the-house-centipede-is-fast-furious-and-hella-leggy ---+ For more information: Visit the centipede page of the Natural History Museum, London: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/origins-evolution-and-futures/centipede-systematics.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: How Kittens Go From Clueless to Cute https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1xRlkNwQy8 This Adorable Sea Slug is a Sneaky Little Thief https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KLVfWKxtfow ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Origin of Everything: Why Do People Have Pets? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k2nW7_2VUMc Hot Mess: What if Carbon Emissions Stopped Tomorrow? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4kX9xKGeEw ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
Views: 882761 Deep Look
These Termites Turn Your House into a Palace of Poop | Deep Look
 
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Termites cause billions of dollars in damage annually – but they need help to do it. So they carry tiny organisms around with them in their gut. Together, termites and microorganisms can turn the wood in your house into a palace of poop. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Termites such as dampwood termites use their cardboard-like poop pellets to build up their nests, turning a human house into a termite toilet. “They build their own houses out of their own feces,” said entomologist Michael Scharf, of Purdue University, in Indiana. And while they’re using their poop as a building material, termites are also feeding on the wood. They’re one of the few animals that can extract nutrients from wood. But it turns out that they need help to do this. A termite’s gut is host to a couple dozen species of protists, organisms that are neither animals, nor plants, nor fungi. Scientists have found that several of them help termites break down wood. When some protists are eliminated from the termite’s gut, the insect can’t get any nutrition out of the wood. This is a weakness that biologists hope to exploit as a way to get rid of termites using biology rather than chemicals. Louisiana State University entomologist Chinmay Tikhe is working to genetically engineer a bacterium found in the Formosan termite’s gut so that the bacterium will destroy the gut protists. The idea would be to sneak these killer bacteria into the termite colony on some sort of bait the termites would eat and carry back with them. “It’s like a Trojan Horse,” said Tikhe, referring to the strategy used by the Greeks to sneak their troops into the city of Troy using a wooden horse that was the city’s emblem. The bacteria would then kill the protists that help the termite derive nutrition from wood. The termites would eventually starve. --- How do termites eat wood? Termites gnaw on the wood. Then they mix it with enzymes that start to break it down. But they need help turning the cellulose in wood into nutrients. They get help from hundreds, and sometimes thousands, of species of microbes that live inside their guts. One bacterium, for example, combines nitrogen from the air and calories from the wood to make protein for the termites. A termite’s gut is also host to a couple dozen species of protists. In the termite’s hindgut, protists ferment the wood into a substance called acetate, which gives the termite energy. --- How do termites get into our houses? Termites can crawl up into a house from the soil through specialized tubes made of dirt and saliva, or winged adults can fly in, or both. This depends on the species and caste member involved. --- What do termites eat in our houses? Once they’re established in our houses, termites attack and feed on sources of cellulose, a major component of wood, says entomologist Vernard Lewis, of the University of California, Berkeley. This could include anything from structural wood and paneling, to furniture and cotton clothing. Termites also will eat dead or living trees, depending on the species. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/10/18/these-termites-turn-your-house-into-a-palace-of-poop/ ---+ For more information: University of California Integrated Pest Management Program’s web page on termites: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7415.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU For These Tiny Spiders, It’s Sing or Get Served: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7qMqAgCqME Where are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay To Be Smart: The Donald Trump Caterpillar and Nature’s Masters of Disguise https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VTUCTT6I1TU Gross Science: Why Do Dogs Eat Poop? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3pB-xZGM1U ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. macro pest control #deeplook
Views: 819521 Deep Look
Identical Snowflakes? Scientist Ruins Winter For Everyone.  |  Deep Look
 
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We've all heard that each and every snowflake is unique. But in a lab in sunny southern California, a physicist has learned to control the way snowflakes grow. Can he really make twins? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * California's historic drought is finally over thanks largely to a relentless parade of powerful storms that have brought the Sierra Nevada snowpack to the highest level in six years, and guaranteed skiing into June. All that snow spurs an age-old question -- is every snowflake really unique? “It’s one of these questions that’s been around forever,” said Ken Libbrecht, a professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. “I think we all learn it in elementary school, the old saying that no two snowflakes are alike.” --- How do snowflakes form? Snow crystals form when humid air is cooled to the point that molecules of water vapor start sticking to each other. In the clouds, crystals usually start forming around a tiny microscopic dust particle, but if the water vapor gets cooled quickly enough the crystals can form spontaneously out of water molecules alone. Over time, more water molecules stick to the crystal until it gets heavy enough to fall. --- Why do snowflakes have six arms? Each water molecule is each made out of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. As vapor, the water molecules bounce around slamming into each other. As the vapor cools, the hydrogen atom of one molecule forms a bond with the oxygen of another water molecule. This is called a hydrogen bond. These bonds make the water molecules stick together in the shape of a hexagonal ring. As the crystal grows, more molecules join fitting within that same repeating pattern called a crystal array. The crystal keeps the hexagonal symmetry as it grows. --- Is every snowflake unique? Snowflakes develop into different shapes depending on the humidity and temperature conditions they experience at different times during their growth. In nature, snowflakes don’t travel together. Instead, each takes it’s own path through the clouds experiencing different conditions at different times. Since each crystal takes a different path, they each turn out slightly differently. Growing snow crystals in laboratory is a whole other story. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/04/11/identical-snowflakes-scientist-ruins-winter-for-everyone-deep-look/ ---+ For more information: Ken Libbrecht’s online guide to snowflakes, snow crystals and other ice phenomena. http://snowcrystals.com/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Can A Thousand Tiny Swarming Robots Outsmart Nature? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDsmbwOrHJs What Gives the Morpho Butterfly Its Magnificent Blue? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29Ts7CsJDpg&list=PLdKlciEDdCQDxBs0SZgTMqhszst1jqZhp&index=48 The Amazing Life of Sand | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VkrQ9QuKprE&list=PLdKlciEDdCQDxBs0SZgTMqhszst1jqZhp&index=51 The Hidden Perils of Permafrost | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wxABO84gol8 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! The Science of Snowflakes | It’s OK to be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUot7XSX8uA An Infinite Number of Words for Snow | PBS Idea Channel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CX6i2M4AoZw Is an Ice Age Coming? | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztninkgZ0ws ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 385963 Deep Look
Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? | Deep Look
 
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Ants don’t eat leaves. They use them to grow white tufts of nutritious fungus to feed their offspring. Their success as farmers has made leafcutter ants into fungus tycoons, complete with their own underground cities and huge half-inch soldiers to patrol them. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. What do ants eat? Though leafcutter ants drink the sap in leaves for energy, they don’t eat them. Instead, they use them to grow something else. Leafcutters use leaf pieces to feed a fungus that grows in white tufts in their nests. The ants eat the fungus and feed it to their brood. How old are ants? To give you an idea, while humans have farmed for around 12,000 years, ants have been doing it for 60 million. How many ants are there in the world? If you bundled together all the ants in the world, there would be more of them than people – they’re the dominant biomass, says Brian Fisher, chair of the Department of Entomology at the California Academy of Sciences, in San Francisco. This is because all 30,000 species of ants are social. They have many ways of making a living. How strong are ants? Leafcutter ants haul leaf pieces through fields or forests to their underground nests. For a human, this feat would be the equivalent of carrying more than 600 pounds between our teeth. Why are ants important to the soil? The activity of ants aerates the soil, making it easier for water and oxygen to get through. They also contribute organic matter. More great Deep Look episodes: What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Newt Sex: Buff Males! Writhing Females! Cannibalism! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5m37QR_4XNY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: What's The Most Successful Species on Earth? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fWc46NCnldo And this one is also a favorite: How to get Ants to carry a sign - Smarter Every Day 92 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZZzcw9ifDQ Read an extended article on how leafcutter ants grow a fungus from leaf pieces: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/06/11/where-are-the-ants-carrying-all-those-leaves/ If you’re in the San Francisco Bay Area, you can see live leafcutters at the Oakland Zoo or the California Academy of Sciences, in San Francisco. http://www.oaklandzoo.org http://www.calacademy.org The compact book “The Leafcutter Ants: Civilization by Instinct,” by Bert Hölldobler and Edward O. Wilson, has detailed black and white drawings, photos and a fascinating description of the mating habits of leafcutter ant queens. The queen accumulates all the sperm she’ll need for her entire reproductive life during a single mating frenzy. After that, males are no longer necessary: Leafcutter colonies are made up entirely of female ants. KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 459194 Deep Look
These Crazy Cute Baby Turtles Want Their Lake Back | Deep Look
 
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Turtles grow up without parents, which might sound lonely. But for threatened baby turtles raised in a zoo it’s an advantage: they can learn to catch crickets all by themselves. There’s a paradox, though. When they are ready to leave the nursery, there is little wilderness where they can make a home. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Read more on baby turtles: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/01/26/these-crazy-cute-baby-turtles-want-their-lake-back Where do turtles live? Western pond turtles live most of their lives in the water, in freshwater lakes. What do turtles eat? The meat-eaters feed on crustaceans like crayfish, dragonfly nymphs and fish. Are turtles reptiles? Turtles are reptiles not amphibians. They are considered reptiles since they live in water. Are turtles endangered? "There are only 300 species, and most of them are doing quite poorly." The turtles haven’t been doing well in their native habitat in the western United States. In California, they’re a species of “special concern.” Why can turtles be raised in zoos? Most turtle species grow up without parents, which makes them easy to raise in zoos and help conservation. Once a female western pond turtle lays her eggs near a lake or pond, she never returns to the nest. Because they lack parental care, turtles don’t imprint on zoo keepers. More great Deep Look episodes: Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater: https://youtu.be/T-RtG5Z-9jQ Nature's Mood Rings: How Chameleons Really Change Color: https://youtu.be/Kp9W-_W8rCM Newt Sex: Buff Males! Writhing Females! Cannibalism! https://youtu.be/5m37QR_4XNY See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: https://youtu.be/fWc46NCnldo If you’re in the San Francisco Bay Area, The San Francisco Zoo is currently head-starting nine western pond turtle hatchlings and the Oakland Zoo, 16. The baby turtles at the San Francisco Zoo are on display in the Children’s Zoo, while the Oakland Zoo is raising theirs in a back room where six small tubs create the impression of a maternity ward. http://www.sfzoo.org/ http://oaklandzoo.org/ KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 562093 Deep Look
Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater | Deep Look
 
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Bugs and beetles can’t hold their breath underwater like we do. But some aquatic insects can spend their whole adult lives underwater. How do they do it? Meet nature’s Scuba divers. They carry their air with them—in some cases, for a lifetime. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. --- How do some insects breathe underwater? Air-breathing aquatic bugs and beetles don’t hold their breath the way sea mammals do, nor do they have gills like fish. So how do they do it? The answer lies in their small size. Insect scuba strategies hinge on a property of water that relative giants like us usually overlook: surface tension. People first crossed the line between land and sea to become scuba divers more than 70 years ago, when Jacques Cousteau pioneered the Aqua-Lung in Nazi-occupied France. But some species of aquatic insects have been doing it for millions of years. “Water beetles have been breathing underwater since before the dinosaurs existed,” said Crystal Maier, an entomologist at The Field Museum in Chicago. “It has evolved at least 10 times across the insect tree of life.” --- What is surface tension? Surface tension is the property of any liquid that describes how its particles stick together. In the case of water, surface tension is especially strong, enough to form a kind of film where it meets the air, whether at the surface or in a bubble. The film is so strong, in fact, that a paper clip, which should sink because of its density, will float. Surface tension is a delicate force, vulnerable to changes temperature, turbulence or the introduction of contaminants, like soap. A sudden drop in surface tension can drown a whole insect community in an instant. Though it might not seem to affect our world to the same degree, surface tension is active all around us. It allows raindrops to form, trees to bring water to their leaves and ice to float. So in a sense, we too live on a thin boundary, ruled by the same subtle properties of water. --- How do beetles use surface tension to breathe underwater? If you’re a bug the size of a paperclip, in other words, surface tension makes a difference. Harnessing it, some aquatic beetles carry the oxygen they need underwater in the form of a temporary bubble, sort of like a natural scuba tank. Others encase themselves in a layer of air and draw oxygen from it their whole lives. “It’s a pretty successful group of insects. They’re on every continent, except Antarctica,” said Cheryl Barr, collection manger emeritus at the Essig Museum of Entomology at UC Berkeley. --- Super videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Seven Surface Tension Experiments | Physics Girl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsksF... Nature's Most Amazing Animal Superpowers | It's Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e69ya... Why Don’t These Cicadas Have Butts? | Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDBkj... Read the full article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/11/10/natures-scuba-divers-how-beetles-breathe-underwater/ --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Halloween Special: Watch Flesh-Eating Beetles Strip Bodies to the Bone https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Np0hJ... What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY6... You're Not Hallucinating. That's Just Squid Skin. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wtLr... --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 452316 Deep Look
How Your Dog's Nose Knows So Much | Deep Look
 
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Support Deep Look on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Dogs have a famously great sense of smell, but what makes their noses so much more powerful than ours? They're packing some sophisticated equipment inside that squishy schnozz. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. --- How much more powerful is a dog’s sense of smell compared to a human? According to one estimate, dogs are 10,000-100,000 times more sensitive to smell than humans. They have about 15 times more olfactory neurons that send signals about odors to the brain. The neurons in a dog’s nose are spread out over a much larger and more convoluted area allowing them more easily decipher specific chemicals in the air. --- Why are dog noses wet? Dog noses secrete mucus which traps odors in the air and on the ground. When a dog licks its nose, the tongue brings those odors into the mouth allowing it to sample those smells. Dogs mostly cool themselves by panting but the mucus on their noses and sweat from their paws cool through evaporation. --- Why do dog nostrils have slits on the side? Dogs sniff about five times per second. The slits on the sides allows exhaled air to vent towards the sides and back. That air moving towards the back of the dog creates a low air pressure region in front of it. Air from in front of the dog rushes in to fill that low pressure region. That allows the nose to actively bring odors in from in front and keeps the exhaled air from contaminating new samples. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2019/02/26/how-your-dogs-nose-knows-so-much/ ---+ For more information: The Odor Navigation Project funded NSF Brain Initiative https://odornavigation.org/ Jacobs Lab of Cognitive Biology at UC Berkeley http://jacobs.berkeley.edu/ Ecological Fluid Dynamics Lab at University of Colorado Boulder https://www.colorado.edu/lab/ecological-fluids/ The fluid dynamics of canine olfaction: unique nasal airflow patterns as an explanation of macrosmia (Brent A. Craven, Eric G. Paterson, and Gary S. Settles) https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsif.2009.0490 ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Fantastic Fur of Sea Otters | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zxqg_um1TXI You've Heard of a Murder of Crows. How About a Crow Funeral? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixYVFZnNl6s&t=85s Newt Sex: Buff Males! Writhing Females! Cannibalism! | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5m37QR_4XNY What Makes Owls So Quiet and So Deadly? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a68fIQzaDBY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! How James Brown Invented Funk | Sound Field https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AihgZv1D5-4 How To Suck Carbon Dioxide Out of the Sky | Hot Mess https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tKtXojkwlK8 What’s the Real Cost of Owning A Pet? | Two Cents https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ma3Mt5BPlTE ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ Shoutout! 🏆Congratulations 🏆 to Branden W., Edison Lewis, Vampire Wolf, Haithem Ghanem and Droidtigger who won our GIF CHALLENGE over at the Deep Look Community Tab, by identifying the special region in the canine skull which houses much of the smell ability: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-3SbfTPJsL8fJAPKiVqBLg/community?lb=UgxG3acWQLcpjNUTlXt4AaABCQ ---+ Thank you to our Top Patreon Supporters ($10+ per month) Bill Cass Justin Bull Daniel Weinstein David Deshpande Daisuke Goto Karen Reynolds Yidan Sun Elizabeth Ann Ditz KW Shirley Washburn Tanya Finch johanna reis Shelley Pearson Cranshaw Johnnyonnyful Levi Cai Jeanine Womble Michael Mieczkowski SueEllen McCann TierZoo James Tarraga Willy Nursalim Aurora Mitchell Marjorie D Miller Joao Ascensao PM Daeley Two Box Fish Tatianna Bartlett Monica Albe Jason Buberel ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by the National Science Foundation, the Templeton Religion Trust, the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
Views: 186306 Deep Look
You're Not Hallucinating. That's Just Squid Skin. | Deep Look
 
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Octopuses and cuttlefish are masters of underwater camouflage, blending in seamlessly against a rock or coral. But squid have to hide in the open ocean, mimicking the subtle interplay of light, water, and waves. How do they do it? (And it is NOT OCTOPI) SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * --- How do squid change color? For an animal with such a humble name, market squid have a spectacularly hypnotic appearance. Streaks and waves of color flicker and radiate across their skin. Other creatures may posses the ability to change color, but squid and their relatives are without equal when it comes to controlling their appearance and new research may illuminate how they do it. To control the color of their skin, cephalopods use tiny organs in their skin called chromatophores. Each tiny chromatophore is basically a sac filled with pigment. Minute muscles tug on the sac, spreading it wide and exposing the colored pigment to any light hitting the skin. When the muscles relax, the colored areas shrink back into tiny spots. --- Why do squid change color? Octopuses, cuttlefish and squid belong to a class of animals referred to as cephalopods. These animals, widely regarded as the most intelligent of the invertebrates, use their color change abilities for both camouflage and communication. Their ability to hide is critical to their survival since, with the exception of the nautiluses, these squishy and often delicious animals live without the protection of protective external shells. But squid often live in the open ocean. How do you blend in when there's nothing -- except water -- to blend into? They do it by changing the way light bounces off their their skin -- actually adjust how iridescent their skin is using light reflecting cells called iridophores. They can mimic the way sunlight filters down from the surface. Hide in plain sight. Iridophores make structural color, which means they reflect certain wavelengths of light because of their shape. Most familiar instances of structural color in nature (peacock feathers, mother of pearl) are constant–they may shimmer when you change your viewing angle, but they don't shift from pink to blue. --- Read the article for this video on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/09/08/youre-not-hallucinating-thats-just-squid-skin/ --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: What Gives the Morpho Butterfly Its Magnificent Blue? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29Ts7CsJDpg Nature's Mood Rings: How Chameleons Really Change Color https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kp9W-_W8rCM Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww --- Related videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Cuttlefish: Tentacles In Disguise - It’s Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcwfTOg5rnc Why Neuroscientists Love Kinky Sea Slugs - Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGHiyWjjhHY The Psychology of Colour, Emotion and Online Shopping - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THTKv6dT8rU --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #squid #octopus
Views: 1321326 Deep Look
Whack! Jab! Crack! It's a Blackback Land Crab Smackdown | Deep Look
 
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It's an all-out brawl for prime beach real estate! These Caribbean crabs will tear each other limb from limb to get the best burrow. Luckily, they molt and regrow lost legs in a matter of weeks, and live to fight another day. You can learn more about CuriosityStream at https://curiositystream.com/deeplook Help Deep Look grow by supporting us on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook PBS Digital Studios Mega-playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqKjV9WNrIXRphDssM4gu0J DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. On the sand-dune beaches where they live, male blackback land crabs do constant battle over territory. The stakes are high: If one of these baby-faced crabs secures a winning spot, he can invite a mate into his den, six or seven feet beneath the surface. With all this roughhousing, more than feelings get hurt. The male crabs inevitably lose limbs and damage their shells in constant dust-ups. Luckily, like many other arthropods, a group that includes insects and spiders, these crabs can release a leg or claw voluntarily if threatened. It’s not unusual to see animals in the field missing two or three walking legs. The limbs regrow at the next molt, which is typically once a year for an adult. When a molt cycle begins, tiny limb buds form where a leg or a claw has been lost. Over the next six to eight weeks, the buds enlarge while the crab reabsorbs calcium from its old shell and secretes a new, paper-thin one underneath. In the last hour of the cycle, the crab gulps air to create enough internal pressure to pop open the top of its shell, called the carapace. As the crab pushes it way out, the same internal pressure helps uncoil the new legs. The replacement shell thickens and hardens, and the crab eats the old shell. --- Are blackback land crabs edible? Yes, but they’re not as popular as the major food species like Dungeness and King crab. --- Where do blackback land crabs live? They live throughout the Caribbean islands. --- Does it hurt when they lose legs? Hard to say, but they do have an internal mechanism for releasing limbs cleanly that prevents loss of blood. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1933532/whack-jab-crack-its-a-blackback-land-crab-smackdown ---+ For more information: The Crab Lab at Colorado State University: https://rydberg.biology.colostate.edu/mykleslab/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Want a Whole New Body? Ask This Flatworm How https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m12xsf5g3Bo Daddy Longlegs Risk Life ... and Especially Limb ... to Survive https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjDmH8zhp6o ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Origin of Everything: The Origin of Gender https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5e12ZojkYrU Hot Mess: Coral Reefs Are Dying. But They Don’t Have To. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MUAsFZuFQvQ ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by the National Science Foundation, the Templeton Religion Trust, the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation and the members of KQED. ---+ Shoutout! Congratulations to 🏆Jen Wiley🏆, who was the first to correctly ID the species of crab in our episode over at the Deep Look Community Tab: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-3SbfTPJsL8fJAPKiVqBLg/community?lb=UgyCnadHtKVPOgEmp-d4AaABCQ #deeplook #pbsds #crab
Views: 425203 Deep Look
These Carnivorous Worms Catch Bugs by Mimicking the Night Sky  | Deep Look
 
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The glow worm colonies of New Zealand's Waitomo Caves imitate stars to confuse flying insects, then trap them in sticky snares and eat them alive. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is science up close - really, really close. An ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Like fireflies, the spectacular worms of New Zealand’s Waitomo Caves glow by breaking down a light-emitting protein. But unlike the yellow mating flashes of fireflies, the glow worms’ steady blue light has a more insidious purpose: it’s bait. The strategy is simple. Many of the glow worms’ prey are insects, including moths, that navigate by starlight. With imposter stars all around, the insects become disoriented and fly into a waiting snare. Once the victim has exhausted itself trying to get free, the glow worm reels in the catch. The prey is typically still alive when it arrives at the glow worm’s mouth, which has teeth sharp enough to bore through insect exoskeletons. Glow worms live in colonies, and researchers have noticed that individual worms seem to sync their lights to the members of their colony, brightening and dimming on a 24-hour cycle. There can be several colonies of glow worms in a cave, and studies have shown that different colonies are on different cycles, taking turns at peak illumination, when they’re most attractive to prey. Not surprisingly, the worms glow brighter when they’re hungry. --- How do glow worms glow? Their light is the result of a chemical reaction. The worms break down a protein called luciferin using an enzyme, luciferase, in a specialized section of their digestive tract. The glow shines through their translucent skin. --- Why do glow worms live in caves? The glow worms need to be in a dark environment where their light can be seen. Caves also shelter them from the wind, which can tangle their dangling snares. --- Where can I see glow worms? The Waitomo Caves are on New Zealand’s North Island. Other New Zealand glow worm sites include the Te Anau caves, Lake Rotoiti, Paparoa National Park, and Waipu. A related species inhabits similar caves in eastern Australia. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/06/28/these-carnivorous-worms-catch-bugs-by-mimicking-the-night-sky/ ---+ For more information: Discover Waitomo: http://www.waitomo.com/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boyzWeHdtiI The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWwgLS5tK80 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Are You Smarter Than A Slime Mold? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K8HEDqoTPgk Gross Science: Hookworms and the Myth of the "Lazy Southerner" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7BwgpYexMjk ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 561626 Deep Look
How Ticks Dig In With a Mouth Full of Hooks | Deep Look
 
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Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Why can't you just flick a tick? Because it attaches to you with a mouth covered in hooks, while it fattens up on your blood. For days. But don't worry – there *is* a way to pull it out. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Spring is here. Unfortunately for hikers and picnickers out enjoying the weather, the new season is prime time for ticks, which can transmit bacteria that cause Lyme disease. How they latch on – and stay on – is a feat of engineering that scientists have been piecing together. Once you know how a tick’s mouth works, you understand why it’s impossible to simply flick a tick. The key to their success is a menacing mouth covered in hooks that they use to get under the surface of our skin and attach themselves for several days while they fatten up on our blood. “Ticks have a lovely, evolved mouth part for doing exactly what they need to do, which is extended feeding,” said Kerry Padgett, supervising public health biologist at the California Department of Public Health in Richmond. “They're not like a mosquito that can just put their mouth parts in and out nicely, like a hypodermic needle.” Instead, a tick digs in using two sets of hooks. Each set looks like a hand with three hooked fingers. The hooks dig in and wriggle into the skin. Then these “hands” bend in unison to perform approximately half-a-dozen breaststrokes that pull skin out of the way so the tick can push in a long stubby part called the hypostome. “It’s almost like swimming into the skin,” said Dania Richter, a biologist at the Technische Universität Braunschweig in Germany, who has studied the mechanism closely. “By bending the hooks it’s engaging the skin. It’s pulling the skin when it retracts.” The bottom of their long hypostome is also covered in rows of hooks that give it the look of a chainsaw. Those hooks act like mini-harpoons, anchoring the tick to us for the long haul. “They’re teeth that are backwards facing, similar to one of those gates you would drive over but you're not allowed to back up or else you'd puncture your tires,” said Padgett. --- How to remove a tick. Kerry Padgett, at the California Department of Public Health, recommends grabbing the tick close to the skin using a pair of fine tweezers and simply pulling straight up. “No twisting or jerking,” she said. “Use a smooth motion pulling up.” Padgett warned against using other strategies. “Don't use Vaseline or try to burn the tick or use a cotton swab soaked in soft soap or any of these other techniques that might take a little longer or might not work at all,” she said. “You really want to remove the tick as soon as possible.” --- What happens if the mouth of a tick breaks off in your skin? Don’t worry if the tick’s mouth parts stay behind when you pull. “The mouth parts are not going to transmit disease to people,” said Padgett. If the mouth stayed behind in your skin, it will eventually work its way out, sort of like a splinter does, she said. Clean the bite area with soap and water and apply antibiotic ointment. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1920972/how-ticks-dig-in-with-a-mouth-full-of-hooks ---+ For more information: Centers for Disease Control information on Lyme disease: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/ Mosquito & Vector Control District for San Mateo County, California: https://www.smcmvcd.org/ticks ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU So … Sometimes Fireflies Eat Other Fireflies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWdCMFvgFbo ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Above the Noise: Are Energy Drinks Really that Bad? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5l0cjsZS-eM It’s Okay To Be Smart: Inside an ICE CAVE! - Nature's Most Beautiful Blue https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7LKm9jtm8I ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook #ticks #tickbite
Views: 3435969 Deep Look
The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon | Deep Look
 
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When attacked, this beetle sets off a rapid chemical reaction inside its body, sending predators scrambling. This amazing chemical defense has some people scratching their heads: How could such a complex system evolve gradually—without killing the beetle too? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. The bombardier beetle, named for soldiers who once operated artillery cannons, has a surprising secret to use against potential predators. When attacked, the beetle mixes a cocktail of compounds inside its body that produces a fast-moving chemical reaction. The reaction heats the mix to the boiling point, then propels it through a narrow abdominal opening with powerful force. By turning the end of its abdomen on an assailant, the beetle can even aim the spray. The formidable liquid, composed of three main ingredients, both burns and stings the attacker. It can kill a small adversary, such as an ant, and send larger foes, like spiders, frogs, and birds, fleeing in confusion. How do bombardier beetles defend themselves? They manufacture and combine three reactive substances inside their bodies. The chemical reaction is exothermic, meaning it heats the combination to the boiling point, producing a hot, stinging spray, which the beetle can point at an enemy. What does a bombardier beetle spray? It’s a combination of hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide (like what you can buy in the store). The reaction between these two is catalyzed by an enzyme, produced by glands in the beetle, which is the spark that makes the reaction so explosive. Why is it called a bombardier beetle? “Bombardier” is an old French word for a solider who operates artillery. Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/03/22/kaboom-this-beetle-makes-bombs-in-its-body/ --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Halloween Special: Watch Flesh-Eating Beetles Strip Bodies to the Bone https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Np0hJGKrIWg What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-RtG5Z-9jQ --- Super videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Nature's Most Amazing Animal Superpowers | It's Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e69yaWDkVGs Why Don’t These Cicadas Have Butts? | Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDBkj3DjNSM --- For more content from your local PBS and NPR affiliate: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 587427 Deep Look
Meet the Dust Mites, Tiny Roommates That Feast On Your Skin  |  Deep Look
 
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You may think that you've got the house to yourself, but chances are you have about 100 different types of animals living with you. Many of them are harmless, but a few can be dangerous in ways you wouldn't expect. New research explores exactly whom you share your home with and how they got there. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. ---+ About Dust Mites With the warming weather it’s the season for spring cleaning. But before you reach for the broom and mop, take a moment to look at who else is sharing your home with you. The number of uninvited guests you find in your dustpan may surprise you. A recent study published in the journal PeerJ took up the challenge of cataloging the large numbers of tiny animals that live in human dwellings. The researchers found that the average home contains roughly 100 different species of arthropods, including familiar types like flies, spiders and ants, but also some kinds that are less well known like gall wasps and book lice. And no matter how much human residents may clean, there will always be a considerable number of mini-roommates. “Even as entomologists we were really surprised. We live in our houses all the time, so we thought we’d be more familiar with the kind of things we’d come across. There was a surprising level of biodiversity,” said Michelle Trautwein, assistant curator of entomology at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. ---+ What are dust mites? Dust mites are tiny animals, related to spiders, that are usually too small to be seen with the naked eye. They feed on dead skin that humans shed every day and their droppings may cause allergic reactions and may aggravate asthma, especially in children. ---+ How do you minimize dust mites? It’s practically impossible to completely rid a home of dust mites, but frequent cleaning and removing carpeting can help. Wet cleaning like mopping helps keep from stirring up dust while cleaning. The most effective way to keep dust mite populations down is to keep the indoor humidity level low. Dust mites can only survive in humid environments. ---+ How do you see dust mites? Dust mites are about .2mm long. You can see dust mites with a powerful magnifying glass, but you can get a better view by using a microscope. Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/04/05/meet-the-dust-mites-tiny-roommates-that-feast-on-your-skin/ ---+ More great DEEP LOOK episodes: The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/04/05/meet-the-dust-mites-tiny-roommates-that-feast-on-your-skin/ Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 Banana Slugs: Secret of the Slime https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHvCQSGanJg --- Super videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! It's Okay To Be Smart: How Do Bees Make Honey? https://youtu.be/nZlEjDLJCmg Gross Science: What's Living On Your Contact Lenses? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wRMKzsU9zec Gross Science: You Have Mites Living On Your Face https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMmCWx8vySs --- More content from KQED Science, Northern California's PBS and NPR affiliate: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1224735 Deep Look
Watch These Frustrated Squirrels Go Nuts! |  Deep Look
 
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Humans aren’t the only creatures that get frustrated. Squirrels do too. One researcher wants to know, could there be an evolutionary benefit to losing your cool? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * YouTube viewers are well-acquainted with the squirrel genre: Thousands of videos that show squirrels going to great lengths to extract seeds from bird feeders (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FgDa_cpgHWs), or the old favorite, squirrels stuffing their cheeks (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_15UrPHkVQo). Maybe squirrels are so popular because we see some of ourselves in them. This is part of what fueled Mikel Delgado’s interest in the fox squirrels she saw at the University of California, Berkeley. An animal behaviorist and doctoral student there, she likes to quote from Charles Darwin’s book “The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex,” in which the English naturalist proposed that the differences between humans and other animals aren’t that clear-cut. “It was controversial because people thought animals were machines and didn’t feel pain,” she said. Inspired by Darwin, Delgado was intrigued by squirrels’ emotional worlds. The way to tell what they’re feeling, researchers have found, is to watch their tails. When threatened by a predator like a dog, a fox squirrel whips its tail in an s-shaped pattern that researchers call “flagging.” Delgado wondered what else she could learn from watching squirrels flag their tails. For instance, do they get frustrated, the way that people do? So she devised an experiment to explore this question. She taught some of the fox squirrels on campus to lift the lid of a plastic box to find a walnut inside. When the squirrel ate the nut, she dropped another one in. This way, she trained the squirrels to expect a walnut when they looked inside. This training was important because frustration is usually defined as not getting what you expect. Then she replaced the walnut with corn – which squirrels don’t like as much – or left the box empty. These squirrels flagged their tails. For a third group, she locked the box. They flagged their tails the most. They got aggressive, a hallmark of frustration. And they bit, toppled and dragged the box, trying to open it. That makes Delgado think that perhaps frustration has an evolutionary purpose, that it isn’t just for blowing off steam, but is instead a way to gather up energy to “brute-force” a solution. --+ Is frustration an emotion? “It’s a little bit controversial,” said Delgado. “It depends on who you talk to.” Researchers don’t consider frustration one of the basic, or universal, emotions. In the 1960s, psychologist Paul Ekman identified six universal emotions: joy, anger, sadness, surprise, fear and disgust: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PFqzYoKkCc Frustration is related to anger, but researchers don’t consider frustration a basic emotion. “There’s a question as to what exactly it is,” said Delgado. “Sometimes you see it described very specifically as a task: For example, when you expect a soda and you don’t get it from the vending machine. And sometimes you see it described as the response to the task.” ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/09/20/watch-these-frustrated-squirrels-go-nuts ---+ For more information: The lab of Lucia Jacobs, where Mikel Delgado does her research: http://jacobs.berkeley.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Can a New “Vaccine” Stem the Frog Apocalypse? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-IXVcyCZVBg These Crazy Cute Turtles Want Their Lake Back https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTYFdpNpkMY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! BrainCraft: The Power of Sadness in Inside Out https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ST97BGCi3-w PBS Idea Channel: 3 Fallacies For Election Season! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REp4zCum3XY ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #squirrel #squirrelbehavior
Views: 1490456 Deep Look
What Happens When You Zap Coral With The World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser? | Deep Look
 
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Some corals look like undersea gardens, gently blowing in the breeze. Others look like alien brains. But in their skeletons are clues that promise to give scientists a detailed picture of the weather from 500 years ago. Reading these bones? Easy. As long as you have the world's most powerful X-ray laser. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Is coral a plant or animal? Corals are unusual creatures. They are actually a partnership- or symbiosis- between an animal (a polyp) and a plant (algae) in which they work together to survive and thrive. How does coral grow? Tiny animals called polyps form an exoskeleton to live in. When one polyp dies, another builds a new home right on top of the old one. Beneath lies the abandoned exoskeletons, like an ancient city made of layer upon layer of old dwellings. What is coral made of? Coral exoskeletons are mostly made of calcium carbonate. But sometimes the polyps incorporate tiny amounts of other elements from the surrounding water, including the element strontium. Biologists don’t fully understand why polyps absorb strontium, but it’s a phenomenon that happens consistently across the world’s oceans. When sea surface temperatures are warmer, corals absorb less strontium into their exoskeletons. When they are colder, they absorb more. By comparing the strontium-to-calcium ratio over time, scientists are able to reconstruct sea surface temperatures from the past. They also can chart long-term climate cycles that occurred over the lifespan of the coral. Since these corals can live for over 500 years, this gives us insights into the weather hundreds of years before written scientific records. Read the article for this video on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/07/07/what-happens-when-you-zap-coral-with-the-worlds-most-powerful-x-ray-laser/ -- More great Deep Look episodes: Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay to Be Smart: The Oldest Living Things In The World https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jgspUYDwnzQ More KQED Science: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 548540 Deep Look
Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders | Deep Look
 
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Argentine ants are spreading across the globe, eliminating local ants with their take-no-prisoners tactics: invade, dismember, repeat. But this ruthless killer seems to have met its match in the winter ant, a California native with a formidable secret weapon. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * --- About Argentine Ants and Winter Ants For about 200 years, the Argentine ant expansion story has been the slow-moving train wreck of myrmecology, the study of ants. Wherever they go, Argentine ants eliminate the competition with a take-no-prisoners approach. Invade, attack, dismember, consume. Repeat. The basic wisdom among ant scientists is that if you see Argentines, it’s already too late. As early as the 1970s, scientists began to notice a peculiar fact about the Argentine ant. Usually, when ants from different colonies are put together, even from the same species, they fight. But Argentine worker ants can be combined from colonies in Spain, Japan and California, and they will recognize each other — they won’t fight. Without this natural check, researchers say, a single colony of ants from Argentina has spread across continents and oceans. But Jasper Ridge near Stanford is different. In 1993, ant biologist Deborah Gordon’s laboratory began tracking ant populations there. Jasper Ridge was unconquered territory for the Argentines, but they already had been spotted. The Ph.D students conducting field research began to notice one species of native ant was holding its own inside the boundary of the Argentine advance. What, the Stanford researchers wondered, was different here? In 2008, students in Gordon’s invasion ecology class studying the ants claimed to have made a novel discovery. The students watched the winter ants wave their abdomens at their enemies, known as “gaster-flagging” in ant circles, before a cloudy liquid blob appeared at the tip. Approaching the secretion sent the Argentines reeling away. Touching it could kill them. Over the next two years, the students repeated and studied the winter ant’s apparently novel defensive behavior. They also analyzed the secretion. (Turns out it comes from the same gland used by the ants’ ancestors, wasps, to sting.) They confirmed that in fact, with this amazing defense, the preserve’s winter ants were not only surviving, they’re now pushing back, opening up space for other native ant populations to rebound. --- Do Argentine ants bite? Not people. Too small to hurt a human, they’re far more dangerous to their competitors, from other ants about their size to some small birds(!). --- How do you kill Argentine ants? Pest control companies usually recommend slow-acting, fat or protein-based bait that allows the workers to carry the poison back to the nest. --- Why are winter ants called that? In areas where temperatures dip below freezing, winter ants remain active while most ant species hibernate. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/05/03/winter-is-coming-for-the-argentine-ant-invaders/ ---+ For more information: Gordon Lab’s at Stanford University: http://web.stanford.edu/~dmgordon/ Neil Tsutsui Lab’s at Berkeley: https://ourenvironment.berkeley.edu/people/neil-tsutsui ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWwgLS5tK80 The Ladybug Love-In: A Valentine's Special | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-Z6xRexbIU ---+ More great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Space Time: Nucleosynthesis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6yLGeviU8FM Gross Science: Could We Rid The World Of Mosquitoes? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rNEPTxWNadg ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, and one of the highest-rated public television services, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
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Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? | Deep Look
 
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Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Because it's hoarding protein. Not just for itself, but for the butterfly it will become and every egg that butterfly will lay. And it's about to lose its mouth... as it wriggles out of its skin during metamorphosis. DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * That caterpillar in your backyard is chewing through your best leaves for a good reason. “Caterpillars have to store up incredible reserves of proteins,” said Carol Boggs, an ecologist at the University of South Carolina. “Nectar doesn’t have much protein. Most of the protein that goes to making eggs has to come from larval feeding.” Caterpillars are the larval stage of a butterfly. Their complete transformation to pupa and then to butterfly is a strategy called holometaboly. Humans are in the minority among animals in that we don’t go through these very distinct, almost separate, lives. We start out as a smaller version of ourselves and grow bigger. But from an evolutionary point of view, the way butterflies transform make sense. “You have a larva that is an eating machine,” said Boggs. “It’s very well-suited to that. Then you’re turning it into a reproduction machine, the butterfly.” Once it becomes a butterfly it will lose its mouth, grow a straw in its place and go on a liquid diet of sugary nectar and rotten fruit juices. Its main job will be to mate and lay eggs. Those eggs started to develop while it was a pupa, using protein that the caterpillar stored by gorging on leaves. We think of leaves as carbohydrates, but the nitrogen they contain makes them more than one quarter protein, said Boggs. -- What are the stages of a butterfly? Insects such as butterflies undergo a complete transformation, referred to by scientists as holometaboly. A holometabolous insect has a morphology in the juvenile state which is different from that in the adult and which undergoes a period of reorganization between the two, said Boggs. The four life stages are egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa (also known as chrysalis) and butterfly. -- What if humans developed like butterflies? “We’d go into a quiescent period when we developed different kind of eating organs and sensory organs,” said Boggs. “It would be as if we went into a pupa and developed straws as mouths and developed more elaborate morphology for smelling and developed wings. It brings up science fiction images.” ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/07/11/why-is-the-very-hungry-caterpillar-so-dang-hungry/ ---+ For more information: Monarch Watch: http://www.monarchwatch.org California Pipevine Swallowtail Project: https://www.facebook.com/CaliforniaPipevineSwallowtail/ A forum organized by Tim Wong, who cares for the butterflies in the California Academy of Sciences’ rainforest exhibit. Wong’s page has beautiful photos and videos of California pipevine swallowtail butterflies at every stage – caterpillar, pupa and butterfly – and tips to create native butterfly habitat. ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: What Gives the Morpho Butterfly Its Magnificent Blue? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29Ts7CsJDpg This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sj8pFX9SOXE In the Race for Life, Which Human Embryos Make It? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mv_kuwQvoc ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: When Did the First Flower Bloom? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13aUo5fEjNY CrashCourse: The History of Life on Earth - Crash Course Ecology #1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjE-Pkjp3u4 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #caterpillars #butterflies
Views: 1862984 Deep Look