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Videos uploaded by user “Deep Look” for the 2015
What Makes Owls So Quiet and So Deadly? | Deep Look
 
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It's stealth, not speed that makes owls such exceptional hunters. Zoom way in on their phenomenal feathers to see what makes them whisper-quiet. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. --- How do owls hunt silently? When birds flap their wings it creates turbulences in the air as it rushes over their wings. In general, the larger a bird is and the faster it flies, the larger the turbulence created and that means more sound. The feathers at the leading edge of an owl’s wings have an unusual serrated appearance, referred to as a comb or fringe. The tiny hooked projections stick out and break up the wind as it flows over the owl’s wings reducing the size and sound of the turbulences. Owl feathers go one step further to control sound. When viewed up-close, owl feathers appear velvety. The furry texture absorbs and dampens sound like a sound blanket. It also allows the feathers to quietly slide past each other in flight, reducing rusting sounds. --- Why do owls hunt at night? Owls belong to a group called raptors which also so includes with hawks, eagles and falcons. Most of these birds of prey hunt during the day and rely on. But unlike most other raptors, the roughly 200 species of owl are generally nocturnal while others are crepuscular, meaning that they’re active around dawn and dusk. They have extremely powerful low-light vision, and finely tuned hearing which allows them to locate the source of even the smallest sound. Owls simply hide and wait for their prey to betray its own location. As ambush hunters, owls tend to rely on surprise more often than their ability to give chase. --- Why do owls hoot? With Halloween around the corner, you might have noticed a familiar sound in the night. It’s mating season for owls and the sound of their hooting fills the darkness. According to Chris Clark, an an assistant professor of biology at UC Riverside,, “The reason why owls are getting ready to breed right now in the late fall is because they breed earlier than most birds. The bigger the bird the longer it takes for them to incubate their eggs and for the nestlings to hatch out and or the fledglings to leave the nest. Owls try to breed really early because they want their babies to be leaving the nest and practicing hunting right when there are lots of baby animals around like baby rabbits that are easy prey.” --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Halloween Special: Watch Flesh-Eating Beetles Strip Bodies to the Bone https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Np0hJGKrIWg What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY You're Not Hallucinating. That's Just Squid Skin. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wtLrlIKvJE --- Super videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Did Dinosaurs Really Go Extinct? - It's Okay to be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_RLz0whDv4 The Surprising Ways Death Shapes Our Lives - BrainCraft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Joalg73L_gw Crazy pool vortex - Physics Girl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pnbJEg9r1o8 --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 871957 Deep Look
Nature's Mood Rings: How Chameleons Really Change Color | Deep Look
 
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Chameleons don't change color to match their environment; it’s just the opposite. How do they do it? By manipulating tiny crystals in their skin. Now, UC Berkeley researchers are on a quest to create synthetic chameleon skin inspired by these reptiles’ uncanny ability. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. --- How do Chameleons Change Color? Chameleons are some of the most brilliantly colored animals on the planet. But how did they evolve the ability to change color? Scientists used to believe that chameleons changed color by spreading out pigments in their skin, much like octopuses or squid do. The top layer of chameleon skin – called the epidermis – contains yellow pigment cells called xanthophores, and red pigment cells called erythrophores. But the amount of pigment in the cells stays the same, even when the chameleon changes color. Just beneath the chameleon’s skin is a layer of cells called iridophores. These cells contain microscopic salt crystals, which are arranged in a three-dimensional pattern like oranges stacked on a fruit stand. When light hits the crystals, some wavelengths are absorbed and some are reflected. The result, to our eyes, is the beautiful rainbow of colors on the chameleon’s skin. But what we’re actually seeing is light that is bouncing off of these tiny crystals. What we perceive as green, for example, is blue wavelengths of light being reflected off the crystals and through the layer of yellow xanthophore cells in the chameleon’s epidermis. The result is bright green skin that contains no green pigment! The process of changing color is called metachrosis. --- Why do Chameleons Change Color? Chameleons don’t change color to match their environment. In fact, it’s just the opposite. Their baseline is camouflage. When chameleons are relaxed, they’re mostly green. They naturally blend into their home in the forest canopy. They even mimic leaves by dancing around a little. But when they feel threatened, annoyed, or just want to show a little swagger, that’s when their color changes. Scientists once thought that chameleons color-changing abilities allowed them to better camouflage themselves. Most species of chameleons live high in the forest canopy and their various shades of green provide natural camouflage. Even their movement provides camouflage – they dance around to mimic leaves blowing in the wind. In fact, chameleons change color primarily to communicate with each other, as though they were living mood rings. Males will warn each other about their territory and females will change color to let males know whether they’re interested in breeding. Chameleons also have a second layer of iridiophore cells just beneath the first. The crystals in that layer are larger and reflect light waves in the infrared wavelengths. This suggests that chameleons are also changing colors to regulate their temperature, according to Milinkovitch. Chameleons are cold-blooded and heat their bodies with the warmth of the sun. Read the article for this video on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/08/25/natures-mood-rings-how-chameleons-really-change-color/ --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww --- Related video from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Nature's Most Amazing Animal Superpowers - It’s Okay to be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e69yaWDkVGs --- Other Great Science Videos About Chameleons How Do Chameleons Change Color? - Veritasium https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQggDnScsvI True Facts About The Chameleon - zefrank1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UR_byRbXxvs --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 363873 Deep Look
You're Not Hallucinating. That's Just Squid Skin. | Deep Look
 
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Octopuses and cuttlefish are masters of underwater camouflage, blending in seamlessly against a rock or coral. But squid have to hide in the open ocean, mimicking the subtle interplay of light, water, and waves. How do they do it? (And it is NOT OCTOPI) SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * --- How do squid change color? For an animal with such a humble name, market squid have a spectacularly hypnotic appearance. Streaks and waves of color flicker and radiate across their skin. Other creatures may posses the ability to change color, but squid and their relatives are without equal when it comes to controlling their appearance and new research may illuminate how they do it. To control the color of their skin, cephalopods use tiny organs in their skin called chromatophores. Each tiny chromatophore is basically a sac filled with pigment. Minute muscles tug on the sac, spreading it wide and exposing the colored pigment to any light hitting the skin. When the muscles relax, the colored areas shrink back into tiny spots. --- Why do squid change color? Octopuses, cuttlefish and squid belong to a class of animals referred to as cephalopods. These animals, widely regarded as the most intelligent of the invertebrates, use their color change abilities for both camouflage and communication. Their ability to hide is critical to their survival since, with the exception of the nautiluses, these squishy and often delicious animals live without the protection of protective external shells. But squid often live in the open ocean. How do you blend in when there's nothing -- except water -- to blend into? They do it by changing the way light bounces off their their skin -- actually adjust how iridescent their skin is using light reflecting cells called iridophores. They can mimic the way sunlight filters down from the surface. Hide in plain sight. Iridophores make structural color, which means they reflect certain wavelengths of light because of their shape. Most familiar instances of structural color in nature (peacock feathers, mother of pearl) are constant–they may shimmer when you change your viewing angle, but they don't shift from pink to blue. --- Read the article for this video on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/09/08/youre-not-hallucinating-thats-just-squid-skin/ --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: What Gives the Morpho Butterfly Its Magnificent Blue? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29Ts7CsJDpg Nature's Mood Rings: How Chameleons Really Change Color https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kp9W-_W8rCM Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww --- Related videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Cuttlefish: Tentacles In Disguise - It’s Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcwfTOg5rnc Why Neuroscientists Love Kinky Sea Slugs - Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGHiyWjjhHY The Psychology of Colour, Emotion and Online Shopping - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THTKv6dT8rU --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #squid #octopus
Views: 1473636 Deep Look
These 'Resurrection Plants' Spring Back to Life in Seconds | Deep Look
 
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Rain falls and within seconds dried-up moss that's been virtually dead for decades unfurls in an explosion of green. The microscopic creatures living in the moss come out to feed. Scientists say the genes in these “resurrection plants” might one day protect crops from drought. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. How does moss grow? Mosses don’t have roots. Their porous cells absorb water like a sponge, whenever it’s available. When there’s no rain, mosses dry out completely and stop photosynthesizing. That is, they stop using carbon dioxide and the light of the sun to grow. They’re virtually dead, reduced to a pile of chemicals, and can stay that way for years. Researchers have found dry, 100-year-old moss samples in a museum that came back to life when water was added. Read an extended article on how scientists hope to use resurrection plants to create crops that can survive drought: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/06/25/these-resurrection-plants-spring-back-to-life-in-seconds/ -- More great Deep Look episodes: Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Where Does the Smell of Rain Come From? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lGcE5x8s0B8 KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 408406 Deep Look
What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? | Deep Look
 
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Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Scientists have used a high-speed camera to film hummingbirds' aerial acrobatics at 1000 frames per second. They can see, frame by frame, how neither wind nor rain stop these tiniest of birds from fueling up. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. How do hummingbirds eat? With spring in full bloom, hummingbirds can be spotted flitting from flower to flower and lapping up the sugary nectar inside. These tiniest of birds have the highest metabolism of any warm-blooded animal, requiring them to consume their own body weight in nectar each day to survive. By comparison, if a 150-pound human had the metabolism of a hummingbird, he or she would need to consume the caloric equivalent of more than 300 hamburgers a day. But it's not just an extreme appetite that sets hummingbirds apart from other birds. These avian acrobats are the only birds that can fly sideways, backwards and hover for long stretches of time. In fact, hovering is essential to hummingbirds' survival since they have to keep their long, thin beaks as steady as a surgeon's scalpel while probing flowers for nectar. How do Hummingbirds fly? Hummingbirds don't just hover to feed when the weather is nice. They have to keep hovering and feeding even if it's windy or raining, a remarkable feat considering most of these birds weigh less than a nickel. More great Deep Look episodes: Newt Sex: Buff Males! Writhing Females! Cannibalism! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5m37QR_4XNY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww Banana Slugs: Secret of the Slime https://youtu.be/mHvCQSGanJg -- See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! Where Do Birds Go In Winter? - It's Okay to be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ds2XFvSQzBg Read the extended article on how hummingbirds hover at KQED Science: http://blogs.kqed.org/science/2015/03/31/what-happens-when-you-put-a-hummingbird-in-a-wind-tunnel/ SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt KQED Science: http://kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #hummingbirds #wings
Views: 5269298 Deep Look
The Sex Lives of Christmas Trees | Deep Look
 
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The humble pine cone is more than a holiday decoration. It's an ancient form of tree sex. Flowers may be faster and showier, but the largest living things in the world? The oldest? They all reproduce with cones. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Do pine cones have seeds? “There are two different types of cones,” says Bruce Baldwin, professor of plant biology at University of California, Berkeley. “There’s seed cones and pollen cones. The pollen cones are relatively tiny. The seed cone gets to be much larger and takes three years to develop and release seeds so you can often see pine cones of three different stages of development on a single tree.” Why do pine cones open and close? Early in their development, the scales open slightly for a short time to grant access to wind-borne pollen released from smaller pollen cones. After receiving the pollen, the female cones close back up until the seeds are fertilized and mature. Once they are, the scales reopen allowing the wind to disperse the winged seeds. What are the oldest living trees? Conifers are some of the oldest plants in the forest. And they were once much more diverse than they are today. But since the evolution of flowering plants, their diversity has plummeted. Today only about 0.3 percent of all the species of seed plants have cones. Flowering plants have taken over most of the warmer, wetter habitats, pushing out the evergreen conifers. What are the tallest living trees? The tallest (coast redwood), most massive (giant sequoia) and oldest living (bristlecone pine) individual organisms is the world are all conifers. More great Deep Look episodes: These 'Resurrection Plants' Spring Back to Life in Seconds | Deep Look: https://youtu.be/eoFGKlZMo2g The Hidden Perils of Permafrost: https://youtu.be/wxABO84gol8 See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: https://youtu.be/jgspUYDwnzQ BrainCraft: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xr1dB86xE8o Read an extended article on pine cones: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/11/24/the-sex-lives-of-christmas-trees/ If you’re in the San Francisco Bay Area, You can check out the conifer collections at the University of California, Berkeley Jepson Herbarium: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ Or take a stroll through Tilden Regional Parks Botanic Garden to see a variety of California conifers: http://www.ebparks.org/page156.aspx KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 305466 Deep Look
Banana Slugs: Secret of the Slime | Deep Look
 
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Beneath the towering redwoods lives one of the most peculiar creatures in California: the banana slug. They're coated with a liquid crystal ooze that solves many problems slugs face in the forest -- and maybe some of our own. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt Banana slugs are important members of the redwood forest community, even if they aren't the most exalted. They eat animal droppings, leaves and other detritus on the forest floor, and then generate waste that fertilizes new plants. Being slugs, they don't move very quickly, and without a shell, they need other protection to keep themselves from becoming food and then fertilizer. Their main defense: slime. Slime refers to mucus-the same stuff that coats your nose and lungs-found on the outside of an animal's body. Banana slug slime contains nasty chemicals that numb the tongue of any animal that attempts to nibble it, discouraging predators like raccoons, who have to go to the trouble of removing the slime if they want to eat the slug. But this is just one of many ways slugs depend on slime, and they use it for everything from locomotion to nutrition. Read more in our article on KQED Science: http://blogs.kqed.org/science/2015/02/17/banana-slugs-secret-of-the-slime/ Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 635234 Deep Look
How Electric Light Changed the Night | Deep Look
 
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Artificial light makes the modern world possible. But not all kinds of light are good for us. Electric light has fundamentally altered our lives, our bodies and the very nature of our sleep. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 86430 Deep Look
Watch Flesh-Eating Beetles Strip Bodies to the Bone | Deep Look
 
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Dermestid Beetles are fast and fastidious eaters. They can pick a carcass clean in just days leaving even the most delicate bone structures intact. This makes them the perfect tool for museum scientists-- if you keep them far, far away from valuable collections. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt In nature, Dermestid Beetles are death-homing devices. They’ll find a dead body about a week after death and lay eggs in the drying flesh. The larvae emerge with a voracious appetite, outgrowing their skins six to eight times in just days before pupating, becoming adults and flying away to start a new colony. These Dermestid Beetles at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at UC Berkeley are direct descendants from the original colony established in this museum in 1924. The process now used at museums around the world was pioneered here. These are the beetles you see here in this flesh-eating beetles time lapse. Scientists in the prep lab downstairs receive nearly a thousand carcasses a year. It’s their job to preserve each animal for long-term use in the collections upstairs. And the work is not for the squeamish. What makes beetles ideal for cleaning museum specimens is that they’re fast and fastidious eaters. They can pick a carcass clean while leaving even the most delicate bone structures intact. It takes a large beetle colony 24 – 48 hours to clean the bones of small animals like rabbits and owls, and they can work on 100 - 200 specimens at a time. Larger animals like deer or coyotes take about a week. But the alliance between beetles and museum is an uneasy one. Downstairs the beetles are a critical tool. But if Dermestids got loose upstairs, they could wreak havoc in the library stacks, munching through specimen drawers and ruining entire collections. --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww Related videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Can Microbes Solve Murder Mysteries? - Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRUt9pqMCSg The Surprising Ways Death Shapes Our Lives - BrainCraft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Joalg73L_gw Do Animals Mourn Their Dead? - It's Okay to Be Smart (ft. BrainCraft and Gross Science!) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHJDmMSKlHM --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #dermestids #dermestidbeetle
Views: 2231633 Deep Look
How Do Sharks and Rays Use Electricity to Find Hidden Prey? | Deep Look
 
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When it comes to spotting prey, sharks and rays have a secret sense beyond sight and smell. Tiny goo-filled organs called Ampullae of Lorenzini detect the invisible electric fields produced by all living creatures. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. How do Sharks and Rays Sense Electric Fields? Most animals don’t have the ability to detect electric fields. But sharks, rays, skates and sawfish — members of a group called Elasmobranchii — are masters of detecting electric signals. It’s one of their defining features. Elasmobranchs have specialized organs called Ampullae of Lorenzini. These tiny structures allow them to home in on weak bioelectric fields generated by nearby prey. Elasmobranch’s electrosensory organs are named after a 17th century Italian physician, Stefano Lorenzini, who first identified them while dissecting an electric ray. Lorenzini noticed dozens of tiny pores around the animal’s mouth. Each of the pores led to jelly-filled canals that ended in pocket-like structures that he called ampullae, the Latin word for a type of round-bottomed flask. Animals emit low frequency electric fields due to a process known as osmoregulation. This process allows the concentration of ions (charged atoms or molecules) to flow between the inside of our bodies and the outside. In order for our cells to stay intact, the flow of ions needs to be balanced. But balanced doesn’t necessarily mean equal. The concentration of ions within a shrimp’s body is much lower than that of the sea water it swims in. Their voltage, or potential difference generated between the two concentrations across “leaky” surfaces, can then be detected by the ampullae. More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science --- Read the article for this video on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/08/11/sharks-and-rays-sense-electricity-fish-cant-hide/ #deeplook
Views: 352992 Deep Look
Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? | Deep Look
 
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Ants don’t eat leaves. They use them to grow white tufts of nutritious fungus to feed their offspring. Their success as farmers has made leafcutter ants into fungus tycoons, complete with their own underground cities and huge half-inch soldiers to patrol them. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. What do ants eat? Though leafcutter ants drink the sap in leaves for energy, they don’t eat them. Instead, they use them to grow something else. Leafcutters use leaf pieces to feed a fungus that grows in white tufts in their nests. The ants eat the fungus and feed it to their brood. How old are ants? To give you an idea, while humans have farmed for around 12,000 years, ants have been doing it for 60 million. How many ants are there in the world? If you bundled together all the ants in the world, there would be more of them than people – they’re the dominant biomass, says Brian Fisher, chair of the Department of Entomology at the California Academy of Sciences, in San Francisco. This is because all 30,000 species of ants are social. They have many ways of making a living. How strong are ants? Leafcutter ants haul leaf pieces through fields or forests to their underground nests. For a human, this feat would be the equivalent of carrying more than 600 pounds between our teeth. Why are ants important to the soil? The activity of ants aerates the soil, making it easier for water and oxygen to get through. They also contribute organic matter. More great Deep Look episodes: What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Newt Sex: Buff Males! Writhing Females! Cannibalism! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5m37QR_4XNY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: What's The Most Successful Species on Earth? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fWc46NCnldo And this one is also a favorite: How to get Ants to carry a sign - Smarter Every Day 92 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZZzcw9ifDQ Read an extended article on how leafcutter ants grow a fungus from leaf pieces: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/06/11/where-are-the-ants-carrying-all-those-leaves/ If you’re in the San Francisco Bay Area, you can see live leafcutters at the Oakland Zoo or the California Academy of Sciences, in San Francisco. http://www.oaklandzoo.org http://www.calacademy.org The compact book “The Leafcutter Ants: Civilization by Instinct,” by Bert Hölldobler and Edward O. Wilson, has detailed black and white drawings, photos and a fascinating description of the mating habits of leafcutter ant queens. The queen accumulates all the sperm she’ll need for her entire reproductive life during a single mating frenzy. After that, males are no longer necessary: Leafcutter colonies are made up entirely of female ants. KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 547306 Deep Look
Why Jellyfish Float Like a Butterfly—And Sting Like a Bee | Deep Look
 
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Jellyfish don’t have a heart, or blood, or even a brain. They’ve survived five mass extinctions. And you can find them in every ocean, from pole to pole. What’s their secret? Keeping it simple, but with a few dangerous tricks. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. --- Why do Jellyfish Sting? Jellyfish sting to paralyze their prey. They use special cells called nematocysts. Jellyfish don’t have a brain or a central nervous system to control these stinging cells, so each one has it’s own trip wire, called a cnidocil. When triggered, the nematocyst cells act like a combination of fishing hook and hypodermic needle. They fire a barb into the flesh of the jellyfish’s prey at 10,000 times the force of gravity – making it one of the fastest mechanisms in the animal kingdom. As the barb latches on, a thread-like filament bathed in toxin erupts from the barb and delivers the poison. The nematocyst only works if the barb can penetrate the skin, which is why some jellies are more dangerous to humans than others. The smooth-looking tentacles of a sea anemone (a close relative of jellies that also has nematocyst cells) feel like sandpaper to the touch. Their nematocysts are firing, but the barbs aren’t powerful enough to puncture your skin. --- Read the article for this video on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/09/29/why-jellyfish-float-like-a-butterfly-and-sting-like-a-bee/ --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww You're Not Hallucinating. That's Just Squid Skin. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wtLrlIKvJE The Fantastic Fur of Sea Otters https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zxqg_um1TXI --- Related videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! I Don't Think You're Ready for These Jellies - It’s Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a4DQQe5p5gc Why Neuroscientists Love Kinky Sea Slugs - Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGHiyWjjhHY What Physics Teachers Get Wrong About Tides! | Space Time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwChk4S99i4 --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 500127 Deep Look
Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater | Deep Look
 
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Bugs and beetles can’t hold their breath underwater like we do. But some aquatic insects can spend their whole adult lives underwater. How do they do it? Meet nature’s Scuba divers. They carry their air with them—in some cases, for a lifetime. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. --- How do some insects breathe underwater? Air-breathing aquatic bugs and beetles don’t hold their breath the way sea mammals do, nor do they have gills like fish. So how do they do it? The answer lies in their small size. Insect scuba strategies hinge on a property of water that relative giants like us usually overlook: surface tension. People first crossed the line between land and sea to become scuba divers more than 70 years ago, when Jacques Cousteau pioneered the Aqua-Lung in Nazi-occupied France. But some species of aquatic insects have been doing it for millions of years. “Water beetles have been breathing underwater since before the dinosaurs existed,” said Crystal Maier, an entomologist at The Field Museum in Chicago. “It has evolved at least 10 times across the insect tree of life.” --- What is surface tension? Surface tension is the property of any liquid that describes how its particles stick together. In the case of water, surface tension is especially strong, enough to form a kind of film where it meets the air, whether at the surface or in a bubble. The film is so strong, in fact, that a paper clip, which should sink because of its density, will float. Surface tension is a delicate force, vulnerable to changes temperature, turbulence or the introduction of contaminants, like soap. A sudden drop in surface tension can drown a whole insect community in an instant. Though it might not seem to affect our world to the same degree, surface tension is active all around us. It allows raindrops to form, trees to bring water to their leaves and ice to float. So in a sense, we too live on a thin boundary, ruled by the same subtle properties of water. --- How do beetles use surface tension to breathe underwater? If you’re a bug the size of a paperclip, in other words, surface tension makes a difference. Harnessing it, some aquatic beetles carry the oxygen they need underwater in the form of a temporary bubble, sort of like a natural scuba tank. Others encase themselves in a layer of air and draw oxygen from it their whole lives. “It’s a pretty successful group of insects. They’re on every continent, except Antarctica,” said Cheryl Barr, collection manger emeritus at the Essig Museum of Entomology at UC Berkeley. --- Super videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Seven Surface Tension Experiments | Physics Girl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsksF... Nature's Most Amazing Animal Superpowers | It's Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e69ya... Why Don’t These Cicadas Have Butts? | Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDBkj... Read the full article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/11/10/natures-scuba-divers-how-beetles-breathe-underwater/ --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Halloween Special: Watch Flesh-Eating Beetles Strip Bodies to the Bone https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Np0hJ... What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY6... You're Not Hallucinating. That's Just Squid Skin. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wtLr... --- More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 511118 Deep Look
What Happens When You Zap Coral With The World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser? | Deep Look
 
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Some corals look like undersea gardens, gently blowing in the breeze. Others look like alien brains. But in their skeletons are clues that promise to give scientists a detailed picture of the weather from 500 years ago. Reading these bones? Easy. As long as you have the world's most powerful X-ray laser. DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Is coral a plant or animal? Corals are unusual creatures. They are actually a partnership- or symbiosis- between an animal (a polyp) and a plant (algae) in which they work together to survive and thrive. How does coral grow? Tiny animals called polyps form an exoskeleton to live in. When one polyp dies, another builds a new home right on top of the old one. Beneath lies the abandoned exoskeletons, like an ancient city made of layer upon layer of old dwellings. What is coral made of? Coral exoskeletons are mostly made of calcium carbonate. But sometimes the polyps incorporate tiny amounts of other elements from the surrounding water, including the element strontium. Biologists don’t fully understand why polyps absorb strontium, but it’s a phenomenon that happens consistently across the world’s oceans. When sea surface temperatures are warmer, corals absorb less strontium into their exoskeletons. When they are colder, they absorb more. By comparing the strontium-to-calcium ratio over time, scientists are able to reconstruct sea surface temperatures from the past. They also can chart long-term climate cycles that occurred over the lifespan of the coral. Since these corals can live for over 500 years, this gives us insights into the weather hundreds of years before written scientific records. Read the article for this video on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/07/07/what-happens-when-you-zap-coral-with-the-worlds-most-powerful-x-ray-laser/ -- More great Deep Look episodes: Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay to Be Smart: The Oldest Living Things In The World https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jgspUYDwnzQ More KQED Science: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 606513 Deep Look
In the Race for Life, Which Human Embryos Make It? | Deep Look
 
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Every one of us started out as an embryo, but only a few early embryos – about one in three – grow into a baby. Researchers are unlocking the mysteries of our embryonic clock and helping patients who are struggling to get pregnant. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 227709 Deep Look
Can A Thousand Tiny Swarming Robots Outsmart Nature? | Deep Look
 
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How does a group of animals -- or cells, for that matter -- work together when no one’s in charge? Tiny swarming robots--called Kilobots--work together to tackle tasks in the lab, but what can they teach us about the natural world? ↓ More info, videos, and sources below ↓ DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. More KQED SCIENCE: Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science About Kilobots How do you simultaneously control a thousand robots in a swarm? The question may seem like science fiction, but it’s one that has challenged real robotics engineers for decades. In 2010, the Kilobot entered the scene. Now, engineers are programming these tiny independent robots to cooperate on group tasks. This research could one day lead to robots that can assemble themselves into machines, or provide insights into how swarming behaviors emerge in nature. In the future, this kind of research might lead to collaborative robots that could self-assemble into a composite structure. This larger robot could work in dangerous or contaminated areas, like cleaning up oil spills or conducting search-and-rescue activities. What is Emergent Behavior? The universe tends towards chaos, but sometimes patterns emerge, like a flock of birds in flight. Like termites building skyscrapers out of mud, or fish schooling to avoid predators. It’s called emergent behavior. Complex behaviors that arise from interactions between simple things. And you don’t just see it in nature. What’s so interesting about kilobots is that individually, they’re pretty dumb. They’re designed to be simple. A single kilobot can do maybe... three things: Respond to light. Measure a distance, sense the presence of other kilobots. But these are swarm robots. They work together. How do Kilobots work? Kilobots were designed by Michael Rubenstein, a research scientist in the Self Organizing Systems Research Group at Harvard. Each robot consists of about $15 worth of parts: a microprocessor that is about as smart as a calculator, sensors for visible and infrared light, and two tiny cell-phone vibration units that allow it to move across a table. They are powered by a rechargeable lithium-ion battery, like those found in small electronics or watches. The kilobots are programed all at once, as a group, using infrared light. Each kilobot gets the same set of instructions as the next. With just a few lines of programming, the kilobots, together, can act out complex natural processes. The same kinds of simple instructions that kilobots use to self-assemble into shapes can make them mimic natural swarming behaviors, too. For example, kilobots can sync their flashing lights like a swarm of fireflies, differentiate similar to cells in an embryo and follow a scent trail like foraging ants. Read the article for this video on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2015/07/21/can-a-thousand-tiny-swarming-robots-outsmart-nature More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww Related videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Is Ultron Inevitable? | It’s Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Irmtk5QG8s A History Of Robots | The Good Stuff https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TK-h4oATYSI When Will We Worry About the Well-Being of Robots? | Idea Channel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FLieeAUQWMs Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 671905 Deep Look
The Fantastic Fur of Sea Otters | Deep Look
 
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Sea otters aren't just cute -- they're a vivid example of life on the edge. Unlike whales and other ocean mammals, sea otters have no blubber. Yet they're still able to keep warm in the frigid Pacific waters. The secret to their survival? A fur coat like no other. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt Find out more about the sea otter's fantastic fur: http://goo.gl/kdPvWV Check out UC Santa Cruz's Marine Mammal Physiology Project: http://goo.gl/ntwUHp Find out what Monterey Bay Aquarium is doing to save Southen sea otters: http://goo.gl/bbnxm0 Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. Happy #WorldOtterDay ! #deeplook
Views: 379457 Deep Look
From Drifter to Dynamo: The Story of Plankton | Deep Look
 
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Most plankton are tiny drifters, wandering in a vast ocean. But where wind and currents converge they become part of a grander story … an explosion of vitality that affects all life on Earth, including our own. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 184410 Deep Look
Newt Sex: Buff Males! Writhing Females! Cannibalism! | Deep Look
 
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Every winter, California newts leave the safety of their forest burrows and travel as far as three miles to mate in the pond where they were born. Their mating ritual is a raucous affair that involves bulked-up males, writhing females and a little cannibalism. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt These amphibious creatures are about five to eight inches long, with rust-colored skin, except for their bright yellow eyes and belly. They began to arrive at the UC Botanical Garden around November, and will stay here for the duration of the rainy season, usually through the end of March. While California newts (Taricha torosa) are only about six inches long, they might travel as far as three miles to return to their birthplace. That's the equivalent for a human of walking about a marathon and a half, without any signs or road maps. Scientists aren't sure exactly how they find their way, but they think it might be based on smell. Why do newts live in a pond? California Newts live most of their time in the forest, but mate in the pond where they were born. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 692817 Deep Look
TRAILER - Welcome to Deep Look | PBS Digital Studios | KQED
 
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DEEP LOOK - see the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Twice a month, get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt All-NEW EPISODES available now! #deeplook
Views: 50342 Deep Look