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Videos uploaded by user “Deep Look” for the 2016
How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood  |  Deep Look
 
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Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook 🎇 2017 WEBBY PEOPLE'S VOICE WINNER 🎇 for Best Science & Education Video 📹 ! http://webbyawards.com/winners/2017/film-video/general-film/science-education/ Seen up close, the anatomy of a mosquito bite is terrifying. The most dangerous animal in the world uses six needle-like mouthparts to saw into our skin, tap a blood vessel and sometimes leave a dangerous parting gift. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Scientists have discovered that the mosquito’s mouth, called a proboscis isn’t just one tiny spear. It’s a sophisticated system of thin needles, each of which pierces the skin, finds blood vessels and makes it easy for mosquitoes to suck blood out of them. Male mosquitoes don’t bite us, but when a female mosquito pierces the skin, a flexible lip-like sheath called the labium scrolls up and stays outside as she pushes in six needle-like parts that scientists refer to as stylets. Two of these needles, called maxillae, have tiny teeth. The mosquito uses them to saw through the skin. They’re so sharp you can barely feel the mosquito biting you. “They’re like drill bits,” said University of California, Davis, biochemist Walter Leal. Another set of needles, the mandibles, hold tissues apart while the mosquito works. Then the sharp-tipped labrum needle probes under the skin, piercing a vessel and sucking blood from it. The sixth needle – called the hypopharynx – drools saliva into us, and delivers chemicals that keep our blood flowing. Mosquito saliva also makes our blood vessels dilate, blocks our immune response and lubricates the proboscis. It causes us to develop itchy welts, and serves as a conduit for dangerous viruses and parasites. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/06/07/how-mosquitoes-use-six-needles-to-suck-your-blood ---+ What is the deadliest animal in the world? Mosquitoes are the deadliest animals in the world to us humans. The diseases they transmit kill hundreds of thousands of people each year. ---+ How many people get malaria each year? In 2015, malaria, the deadliest mosquito-borne disease, killed roughly 635,000 people, mostly children under the age of five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. ---+ What diseases do mosquitoes transmit? Malaria, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile and Zika are some of the diseases that mosquitoes transmit. Dengue fever, transmitted Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, is estimated to make almost 400 million people sick with jabbing joint pain each year. Scientists also believe that Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main culprit for more than 350 confirmed cases of congenital malformations associated with the Zika virus in the northeastern Brazilian state of Pernambuco. Since last October, an unusually high number of babies have been born there with small heads and a host of health problems like convulsions, suspected of being caused by a Zika virus infection early in their mother’s pregnancy. ---+ What diseases can I get from mosquitoes in the United States? West Nile virus is the most important of several mosquito-transmitted viruses now native to the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control. ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://youtu.be/BWwgLS5tK80 --- See also this new Zika video from PBS Digital Studios: Should You Be Worried About Zika? | It's Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZ9S_3RFBgc ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. -- Video of mosquito labrum probing under mouse skin from: Choumet V, Attout T, Chartier L, Khun H, Sautereau J, et al. (2012) Visualizing Non Infectious and Infectious Anopheles gambiae Blood Feedings in Naïve and Saliva-Immunized Mice. PLoS ONE 7(12): e50464. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050464 . Used under the terms of: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Animations based on drawing in Choo Y-M, Buss GK, Tan K and Leal WS (2015) Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding. Front. Physiol. 6:306. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00306 Used under the terms of: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ #deeplook #mosquito #mosquitobite
Views: 14519110 Deep Look
The Snail-Smashing, Fish-Spearing, Eye-Popping Mantis Shrimp | Deep Look
 
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The killer punch of the mantis shrimp is the fastest strike in the animal kingdom, a skill that goes hand in hand with its extraordinary eyesight. They can see an invisible level of reality using polarized light, which could lead to a breakthrough in detecting cancer. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Aggressive, reef-dwelling mantis shrimp take more than one first-place ribbon in the animal kingdom. Outwardly resembling their lobster cousins, their colorful shells contain an impressive set of superpowers. There are two types of mantis shrimp, named for their attack mode while hunting prey: smashers and spearers. With their spring-loaded, weaponized legs, these predators can crack a snail shell or harpoon a passing fish in a single punch. The speed of these attacks has earned the mantis shrimp one of their world records: fastest strike in the animal kingdom. Scientists are finding that another of their special abilities -- incredible eyesight -- has potential life-saving implications for people with cancer. Mantis shrimp can perceive the most elusive attribute of light from the human standpoint: polarization. Polarization refers to the angle that light travels through space. Though it’s invisible to the human eye, many animals see this quality of light, especially underwater. But mantis shrimp can see a special kind of polarization, called circular polarization. Scientists have found that some mantis shrimp species use circular polarization to communicate with each other on a kind of secret visual channel for mating and territorial purposes. Inspired by the mantis shrimp’s superlative eyesight, a group of researchers is collaborating to build polarization cameras that would constitute a giant leap for early cancer detection. These cameras see otherwise invisible cancerous tissues by detecting their polarization signature, which is different between diseased and healthy tissues. --- How fast is the mantis shrimp punch? Their strike is about as fast as a .22 caliber rifle bullet. It’s been measured at 50mph. --- What do mantis shrimp eat? The “smasher” mantis shrimp eat hard-shelled creatures like snails and crabs. The “spearers” grab fish, worms, seahorses, and other soft-bodied prey by impaling them. --- Where do mantis shrimp live? In reefs, from the east coast of Africa to the west coast of Australia, and throughout Indonesia. A few species are scattered around the globe, including two in California. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/11/15/the-snail-smashing-fish-spearing-eye-popping-mantis-shrimp/ ---+ For more information: Caldwell Lab at U.C. Berkeley: http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/caldwell/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-RtG5Z-9jQ Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ak2xqH5h0YY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Physics Girl: The Ultraviolet Catastrophe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXfrncRey-4 Gross Science: What Sound Does An Ant Make? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yif0c0bRA48 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1091252 Deep Look
Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly | Deep Look
 
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What do you do if you are a tiny caddisfly larva growing up in a torrent of water and debris? Simple. You build a shelter out of carefully selected pebbles and some homespun waterproof tape. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * We already mimic them to make fly-fishing lures. But now scientists believe copycatting one tiny insect could hold promise for repairing human tissues and setting bones. Instead of stitches and screws, doctors may soon call on the next generation of medical adhesives — glues and tape — to patch us up internally. The inspiration? Caddisflies, a type of stream-dwelling, fish-baiting insects that live in creeks all across the United States. As a larva, the caddisfly constructs a tiny tube-like house for itself, called a case, entirely underwater, using pebbles and its incredible homespun tape as the mortar. Thanks to the qualities of this amazing silk, the case not only holds up when submerged, it is strong enough to protect the caddisfly’s soft lower body amid forces many times its body weight. Any tape, including this one, has two basic components: the flat ribbon, or backing, and the layer of sticky stuff, or the glue. From the materials science standpoint, caddisfly tape is extraordinary in both departments. Caddisfly silk biomimicry is only in its infancy, but one day, a similar compound might be used inside the body, which is another watery environment, to mend soft tissues and even repair hard ones, such as teeth and bone. In the streambed, or brook, the caddisfly’s case eventually becomes a cocoon. Like its land-based cousins, the butterflies and moths, from whom it diverged 250 millions years ago, the caddisfly larva undergoes a metamorphosis. It seals up its case with a so-called “hat stone” and emerges months later as a winged adult. --- Where do caddisflies live? Caddisflies are most common in shallow, cold, turbulent streams, where the water is highly oxygenated. --- What do caddisflies eat? Caddisflies are herbivores, they eat decaying plant matter and algae on the rocks in the streams where they live. --- What is so special about caddisfly silk? Engineers are interested in two attributes of caddisfly silk. First of all, it can bond to something, such as a pebble, underwater, which no glue people have made can replicate. Second its “viscoelastic” properties allow to it harmlessly absorb physical forces. When stretched, it doesn’t snap back like a rubber band. It returns to its original shape slowly and safely. It's an engineering marvel. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/08/09/sticky-stretchy-waterproof-the-amazing-underwater-tape-of-the-caddisfly/ ---+ For more information: Troutnut.com http://www.troutnut.com/hatch/12/Insect-Trichoptera-Caddisflies ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 These Carnivorous Worms Catch Bugs by Mimicking the Night Sky https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLb0iuTVzW0 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Venom: Nature’s Killer Cocktails https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qd92MuVZXik Gross Science: Sea Turtles Get Herpes, Too https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpqP9bUUInI ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1249692 Deep Look
The Double-Crossing Ants to Whom Friendship Means Nothing | Deep Look
 
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The Peruvian Amazon is a dangerous place when you're small. So the young Inga tree hires ants as bodyguards to protect its vulnerable leaves. Their pay: delicious nectar served up in tiny ant-sized dishes. But will the ants keep up their end of the bargain? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * For some, ants are welcome guests. In the Amazon rainforest of Peru, a type of tree called the Inga actively encourages ants to stick around. The tree, which is related to plants that produce beans and other legumes, grows tiny structures near the base of its leaves, called nectaries, that secrete a sugary fluid to feed to the ants. In turn, the ants serve as bodyguards, protecting the Inga and its nectaries from invading herbivores. “Plants have all kinds of defenses, but because Inga leaves are not as toxic as many other plants,” says Suzanne Koptur, a professor of biology at Florida International University, “they’re good food for herbivores of all sizes and shapes, from big mammals like sloths and monkeys to little invertebrates like caterpillars.“ The rainforest is especially dangerous for young trees. The branches and leaves of mature trees merge together high in the air forming a canopy. Young trees on the forest floor struggle to get enough light. Young trees also have fewer leaves, and losing even a few to herbivores can threaten their survival. They may be small, but few species want to tangle with the aggressive and territorial big-headed ants. "Ants have powers in numbers, especially if they bite and sting," says Koptur. The ants keep most herbivores, especially hungry caterpillars, away from the young trees. Simply put, the trees provide nectar to the ants in exchange for protection. --- What is mutualism? In biology, mutualism refers to a relationship between two organisms that benefits both of parties. Mutualism is one type of symbiotic relationship. --- What are caterpillars? Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and caterpillars. Young caterpillars hatch out of eggs, eat, grow and molt. They eventually pupate inside their cocoons and then emerge as winged adults. --- What is plant nectar? Nectar is a sugary liquid secreted by plants through structures called nectaries. Nectaries are commonly found in flowers to attract pollinators. Some plants also have extra-floral nectaries located outside of the flowers. To attract animals including ants and predatory wasps that protect the plant from herbivores. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/11/01/the-double-crossing-ants-to-whom-friendship-means-nothing/ ---+ For more information: Interactions Among Inga, Herbivores, Ants, and Insect Visitors to Foliar Nectaries http://faculty.fiu.edu/~kopturs/pubs/MVbookIngaAnts.pdf ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boyzWeHdtiI Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Why Don't Ants Get Stuck In Traffic? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kkiuw0HbRq4 Gross Science: The World's Most Expensive Fungus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iV4WHFU2Id8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. macro documentary #deeplook
Views: 1304963 Deep Look
These Lizards Have Been Playing Rock-Paper-Scissors for 15 Million Years  | Deep Look
 
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Male side-blotched lizards have more than one way to get the girl. Orange males are bullies. Yellows are sneaks. Blues team up with a buddy to protect their territories. Who wins? It depends - on a genetic game of roshambo. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Every spring, keen-eyed biologists carrying fishing poles search the rolling hills near Los Banos, about two hours south of San Francisco. But they’re not looking for fish. They’re catching rock-paper-scissors lizards. The research team collects Western side-blotched lizards, which come in different shades of blue, orange and yellow. Barry Sinervo, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at UC Santa Cruz, leads the team. Their intricate mating strategies reminded the the researchers of the rock-paper-scissors game where rock beats scissors, scissors beats paper and paper beats rock. It’s all about territories. Orange males tend to be the biggest and most aggressive. They hold large territories with several females each and are able to oust the somewhat smaller and less aggressive blues. Blue males typically hold smaller territories and more monogamous, each focusing his interest on a single female. Yellow males tend not to even form exclusive territories Instead they use stealth to find unaccompanied females with whom to mate. The yellow males are particularly successful with females that live in territories held by their more aggressive orange competitors. Because the orange males spread their attention among several females, they aren’t able to guard each individual female against intruding yellow males. But the more monogamous blues males are more vigilant and chase sneaky yellow males away. Their different strategies keep each other in check making the system stable. Sinervo believes this game has likely been in play for at least 15 million years. --- How do side-blotched lizards choose a mate? The males compete with each other, sometimes violently, for access to females. The females generally prefer males of their own color but also give preference to whichever color male is more rare that mating season. --- Why do lizards do push up and down? Male lizards do little pushups as a territorial display meant to tell competitors to back off. It’s best to use a warning instead of fighting right away because there’s always a danger of getting hurt in a fight. Some lizards like side-blotched lizards also use slow push ups to warn their neighbors of an incoming threat. --- Why do side-blotched lizards fight? Sometimes aggressive territorial displays are not enough to dissuade invaders so side-blotched lizards will resort to fighting. They have small sharp teeth and will lunge at each other inflicting bites and headbutts. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/05/17/these-lizards-have-been-playing-rock-paper-scissors-for-15-million-years/ ---+ For more information: The Lab of Dr. Barry Sinervo, LizardLand, University of California, Santa Cruz http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/~barrylab/lizardland/game.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Meet the Dust Mites, Tiny Roommates That Feast On Your Skin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACrLMtPyRM0 Stinging Scorpion vs. Pain-Defying Mouse https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-K_YtWqMro These Crazy Cute Baby Turtles Want Their Lake Back https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTYFdpNpkMY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: The Cosmic Afterglow https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvrHL7-c1Ys It's Okay to Be Smart: The Most Important Moment in the History of Life https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jf06MlX8yik ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #lizards #rockpaperscissorslizardspock
Views: 1244777 Deep Look
Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders | Deep Look
 
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Argentine ants are spreading across the globe, eliminating local ants with their take-no-prisoners tactics: invade, dismember, repeat. But this ruthless killer seems to have met its match in the winter ant, a California native with a formidable secret weapon. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * --- About Argentine Ants and Winter Ants For about 200 years, the Argentine ant expansion story has been the slow-moving train wreck of myrmecology, the study of ants. Wherever they go, Argentine ants eliminate the competition with a take-no-prisoners approach. Invade, attack, dismember, consume. Repeat. The basic wisdom among ant scientists is that if you see Argentines, it’s already too late. As early as the 1970s, scientists began to notice a peculiar fact about the Argentine ant. Usually, when ants from different colonies are put together, even from the same species, they fight. But Argentine worker ants can be combined from colonies in Spain, Japan and California, and they will recognize each other — they won’t fight. Without this natural check, researchers say, a single colony of ants from Argentina has spread across continents and oceans. But Jasper Ridge near Stanford is different. In 1993, ant biologist Deborah Gordon’s laboratory began tracking ant populations there. Jasper Ridge was unconquered territory for the Argentines, but they already had been spotted. The Ph.D students conducting field research began to notice one species of native ant was holding its own inside the boundary of the Argentine advance. What, the Stanford researchers wondered, was different here? In 2008, students in Gordon’s invasion ecology class studying the ants claimed to have made a novel discovery. The students watched the winter ants wave their abdomens at their enemies, known as “gaster-flagging” in ant circles, before a cloudy liquid blob appeared at the tip. Approaching the secretion sent the Argentines reeling away. Touching it could kill them. Over the next two years, the students repeated and studied the winter ant’s apparently novel defensive behavior. They also analyzed the secretion. (Turns out it comes from the same gland used by the ants’ ancestors, wasps, to sting.) They confirmed that in fact, with this amazing defense, the preserve’s winter ants were not only surviving, they’re now pushing back, opening up space for other native ant populations to rebound. --- Do Argentine ants bite? Not people. Too small to hurt a human, they’re far more dangerous to their competitors, from other ants about their size to some small birds(!). --- How do you kill Argentine ants? Pest control companies usually recommend slow-acting, fat or protein-based bait that allows the workers to carry the poison back to the nest. --- Why are winter ants called that? In areas where temperatures dip below freezing, winter ants remain active while most ant species hibernate. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/05/03/winter-is-coming-for-the-argentine-ant-invaders/ ---+ For more information: Gordon Lab’s at Stanford University: http://web.stanford.edu/~dmgordon/ Neil Tsutsui Lab’s at Berkeley: https://ourenvironment.berkeley.edu/people/neil-tsutsui ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWwgLS5tK80 The Ladybug Love-In: A Valentine's Special | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-Z6xRexbIU ---+ More great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Space Time: Nucleosynthesis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6yLGeviU8FM Gross Science: Could We Rid The World Of Mosquitoes? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rNEPTxWNadg ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, and one of the highest-rated public television services, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 475130 Deep Look
This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure |  Deep Look
 
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Most flowering plants are more than willing to spread their pollen around. But some flowers hold out for just the right partner. Bumblebees and other buzz pollinators know just how to handle these stubborn flowers. They vibrate the blooms, shaking them until they give up the nutritious pollen. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * In the summertime, the air is thick with the low humming of bees delivering pollen from one flower to the next. If you listen closely, a louder buzz may catch your ear. This sound is the key to a secret stash of pollen that some flowers hide deep within their anthers, the male parts of the plant. Only pollinators that buzz in just the right way can vibrate tiny grains out of minuscule holes at the top of the anthers for a protein-rich snack. The strategy, called buzz-pollination, is risky. But it’s also critical to human agriculture. Tomatoes, potatoes and eggplants need wild populations of buzz pollinators, such as bumblebees, to produce fruit. Honeybees can’t do it. Plants need a way to get the pollen — basically sperm — to the female parts of another flower. Most plants lure animal pollinators to spread these male gametes by producing sugary nectar. The bee laps up the sweet reward, is dusted with pollen and passively delivers it to the next bloom. In contrast, buzz-pollinated flowers encourage bees to eat the pollen directly and hope some grains will make it to another flower. The evolutionary strategy is baffling to scientists. “The flower is almost like playing hard to get,” says Anne Leonard, a biologist at the University of Nevada, Reno who studies buzz pollination. “It’s intriguing because these buzz-pollinated plants ask for a huge energy investment from the bees, but don’t give much back.” --- What is buzz pollination? Most flowering plants use sugary nectar as bait to attract bees and other pollinators, which get coated in pollen along the way. And since bees are messy, they inadvertently scatter some of that pollen onto the female part of the next flower they visit. But some flowers lock their pollen up in their anthers, the male parts of the flower, instead of giving it away freely. The only way for the pollen to escape is through small holes called pores. Some pollinators like bumblebees (but not honeybees) are able to vibrate the flower’s anthers which shakes up the pollen and causes it to spew out of the pores. The bumblebee collects the pollen and uses it as a reliable and protected source of protein. --- What important crops use buzz pollination to make food? The most important crops that use buzz pollination are potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkins, eggplants, cranberries and blueberries --- What animals are capable of buzz pollination? Many types of bees engage in buzz pollination, also called sonication. The most common is probably the bumblebee. Honeybees generally don’t use buzz pollination. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/07/19/this-vibrating-bumblebee-unlocks-a-flowers-hidden-treasure/ ---+ For more information: Anne Leonard Lab, University of Nevada, Reno | Department of Biology http://www.anneleonard.com/buzz-pollination/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Lizards Have Been Playing Rock-Paper-Scissors for 15 Million Years | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rafdHxBwIbQ Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boyzWeHdtiI ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Why Don't Other Animals Wear Glasses? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LhubEq6W9GE Gross Science: The World's Most Expensive Fungus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iV4WHFU2Id8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 602834 Deep Look
The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon | Deep Look
 
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When attacked, this beetle sets off a rapid chemical reaction inside its body, sending predators scrambling. This amazing chemical defense has some people scratching their heads: How could such a complex system evolve gradually—without killing the beetle too? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. The bombardier beetle, named for soldiers who once operated artillery cannons, has a surprising secret to use against potential predators. When attacked, the beetle mixes a cocktail of compounds inside its body that produces a fast-moving chemical reaction. The reaction heats the mix to the boiling point, then propels it through a narrow abdominal opening with powerful force. By turning the end of its abdomen on an assailant, the beetle can even aim the spray. The formidable liquid, composed of three main ingredients, both burns and stings the attacker. It can kill a small adversary, such as an ant, and send larger foes, like spiders, frogs, and birds, fleeing in confusion. How do bombardier beetles defend themselves? They manufacture and combine three reactive substances inside their bodies. The chemical reaction is exothermic, meaning it heats the combination to the boiling point, producing a hot, stinging spray, which the beetle can point at an enemy. What does a bombardier beetle spray? It’s a combination of hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide (like what you can buy in the store). The reaction between these two is catalyzed by an enzyme, produced by glands in the beetle, which is the spark that makes the reaction so explosive. Why is it called a bombardier beetle? “Bombardier” is an old French word for a solider who operates artillery. Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/03/22/kaboom-this-beetle-makes-bombs-in-its-body/ --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Halloween Special: Watch Flesh-Eating Beetles Strip Bodies to the Bone https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Np0hJGKrIWg What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-RtG5Z-9jQ --- Super videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Nature's Most Amazing Animal Superpowers | It's Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e69yaWDkVGs Why Don’t These Cicadas Have Butts? | Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDBkj3DjNSM --- For more content from your local PBS and NPR affiliate: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 661683 Deep Look
For These Tiny Spiders, It's Sing or Get Served | Deep Look
 
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Male jumping spiders perform courtship dances that would make Bob Fosse proud. But if they bomb, they can wind up somebody's dinner instead of their mate. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * During courtship, the male jumping spider performs an exuberant dance to get the female’s attention. Like a pint-sized Magic Mike working for twenties, he shimmies from side to side, waves his legs, and flaps his front appendages (called pedipalps) in her direction. If she likes what she sees, the female may allow him to mate. But things can also go terribly wrong for these eight-legged suitors. She might decide to attack him, or even eat him for lunch. Cannibalism is the result about seven percent of the time. These mating rituals were first described more than 100 years ago. Their study took on a new dimension, however, when scientists discovered that the males also sing when they attempt to woo their lady loves. By rubbing together their two body segments, equipped with a comb-shaped instrument, the males create vibrations that travel through the ground. The female spiders can “hear” the male songs through ear-like slits in their legs, called sensilla. A male spider’s coordination of the dance and the song seems to affect his reproductive success — in other words, his ability to stay alive during this risky courtship trial. But what exactly the signals mean remains mysterious to scientists. Scientists ultimately hope to understand how a female decides whether she’s looking at a stud — or a dud. --- Where do jumping spiders get their name? Jumping spiders don’t spin webs to catch food. They stalk their prey like cats. They use their silk as a drag line while they hop around. --- What do jumping spiders eat? Jumping spiders are carnivorous and eat insects like flies, bees, and crickets. --- Where do jumping spiders live? A map of jumping spider habitat looks like the whole world! Tropical forests contain the greatest number, but they live just about everywhere, even the Himalayan Mountains. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/10/04/for-these-tiny-spiders-its-sing-or-get-served/ ---+ For more information: Elias Lab at U.C. Berkeley: https://nature.berkeley.edu/eliaslab/ ---+ More great Deep Look episodes: This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 The Ladybug Love-In: A Valentine's Special https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-Z6xRexbIU ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Idea Channel: Do You Pronounce it GIF or GIF? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmqy-Sp0txY Gross Science: Are There Dead Wasps In Figs? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DQTjv_u3Vc ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1100771 Deep Look
Meet the Dust Mites, Tiny Roommates That Feast On Your Skin  |  Deep Look
 
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You may think that you've got the house to yourself, but chances are you have about 100 different types of animals living with you. Many of them are harmless, but a few can be dangerous in ways you wouldn't expect. New research explores exactly whom you share your home with and how they got there. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. ---+ About Dust Mites With the warming weather it’s the season for spring cleaning. But before you reach for the broom and mop, take a moment to look at who else is sharing your home with you. The number of uninvited guests you find in your dustpan may surprise you. A recent study published in the journal PeerJ took up the challenge of cataloging the large numbers of tiny animals that live in human dwellings. The researchers found that the average home contains roughly 100 different species of arthropods, including familiar types like flies, spiders and ants, but also some kinds that are less well known like gall wasps and book lice. And no matter how much human residents may clean, there will always be a considerable number of mini-roommates. “Even as entomologists we were really surprised. We live in our houses all the time, so we thought we’d be more familiar with the kind of things we’d come across. There was a surprising level of biodiversity,” said Michelle Trautwein, assistant curator of entomology at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. ---+ What are dust mites? Dust mites are tiny animals, related to spiders, that are usually too small to be seen with the naked eye. They feed on dead skin that humans shed every day and their droppings may cause allergic reactions and may aggravate asthma, especially in children. ---+ How do you minimize dust mites? It’s practically impossible to completely rid a home of dust mites, but frequent cleaning and removing carpeting can help. Wet cleaning like mopping helps keep from stirring up dust while cleaning. The most effective way to keep dust mite populations down is to keep the indoor humidity level low. Dust mites can only survive in humid environments. ---+ How do you see dust mites? Dust mites are about .2mm long. You can see dust mites with a powerful magnifying glass, but you can get a better view by using a microscope. Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/04/05/meet-the-dust-mites-tiny-roommates-that-feast-on-your-skin/ ---+ More great DEEP LOOK episodes: The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/04/05/meet-the-dust-mites-tiny-roommates-that-feast-on-your-skin/ Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 Banana Slugs: Secret of the Slime https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHvCQSGanJg --- Super videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! It's Okay To Be Smart: How Do Bees Make Honey? https://youtu.be/nZlEjDLJCmg Gross Science: What's Living On Your Contact Lenses? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wRMKzsU9zec Gross Science: You Have Mites Living On Your Face https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMmCWx8vySs --- More content from KQED Science, Northern California's PBS and NPR affiliate: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1454734 Deep Look
Watch These Frustrated Squirrels Go Nuts! |  Deep Look
 
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Humans aren’t the only creatures that get frustrated. Squirrels do too. One researcher wants to know, could there be an evolutionary benefit to losing your cool? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * YouTube viewers are well-acquainted with the squirrel genre: Thousands of videos that show squirrels going to great lengths to extract seeds from bird feeders (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FgDa_cpgHWs), or the old favorite, squirrels stuffing their cheeks (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_15UrPHkVQo). Maybe squirrels are so popular because we see some of ourselves in them. This is part of what fueled Mikel Delgado’s interest in the fox squirrels she saw at the University of California, Berkeley. An animal behaviorist and doctoral student there, she likes to quote from Charles Darwin’s book “The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex,” in which the English naturalist proposed that the differences between humans and other animals aren’t that clear-cut. “It was controversial because people thought animals were machines and didn’t feel pain,” she said. Inspired by Darwin, Delgado was intrigued by squirrels’ emotional worlds. The way to tell what they’re feeling, researchers have found, is to watch their tails. When threatened by a predator like a dog, a fox squirrel whips its tail in an s-shaped pattern that researchers call “flagging.” Delgado wondered what else she could learn from watching squirrels flag their tails. For instance, do they get frustrated, the way that people do? So she devised an experiment to explore this question. She taught some of the fox squirrels on campus to lift the lid of a plastic box to find a walnut inside. When the squirrel ate the nut, she dropped another one in. This way, she trained the squirrels to expect a walnut when they looked inside. This training was important because frustration is usually defined as not getting what you expect. Then she replaced the walnut with corn – which squirrels don’t like as much – or left the box empty. These squirrels flagged their tails. For a third group, she locked the box. They flagged their tails the most. They got aggressive, a hallmark of frustration. And they bit, toppled and dragged the box, trying to open it. That makes Delgado think that perhaps frustration has an evolutionary purpose, that it isn’t just for blowing off steam, but is instead a way to gather up energy to “brute-force” a solution. --+ Is frustration an emotion? “It’s a little bit controversial,” said Delgado. “It depends on who you talk to.” Researchers don’t consider frustration one of the basic, or universal, emotions. In the 1960s, psychologist Paul Ekman identified six universal emotions: joy, anger, sadness, surprise, fear and disgust: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PFqzYoKkCc Frustration is related to anger, but researchers don’t consider frustration a basic emotion. “There’s a question as to what exactly it is,” said Delgado. “Sometimes you see it described very specifically as a task: For example, when you expect a soda and you don’t get it from the vending machine. And sometimes you see it described as the response to the task.” ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/09/20/watch-these-frustrated-squirrels-go-nuts ---+ For more information: The lab of Lucia Jacobs, where Mikel Delgado does her research: http://jacobs.berkeley.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Can a New “Vaccine” Stem the Frog Apocalypse? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-IXVcyCZVBg These Crazy Cute Turtles Want Their Lake Back https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTYFdpNpkMY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! BrainCraft: The Power of Sadness in Inside Out https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ST97BGCi3-w PBS Idea Channel: 3 Fallacies For Election Season! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REp4zCum3XY ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #squirrel #squirrelbehavior
Views: 1606520 Deep Look
Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look
 
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Conceived in the open sea, tiny spaceship-shaped sea urchin larvae search the vast ocean to find a home. After this incredible odyssey, they undergo one of the most remarkable transformations in nature. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Every summer, millions of people head to the coast to soak up the sun and play in the waves. But they aren’t alone. Just beyond the crashing surf, hundreds of millions of tiny sea urchin larvae are also floating around, preparing for one of the most dramatic transformations in the animal kingdom. Scientists along the Pacific coast are investigating how these microscopic ocean drifters, which look like tiny spaceships, find their way back home to the shoreline, where they attach themselves, grow into spiny creatures and live out a slow-moving life that often exceeds 100 years.“These sorts of studies are absolutely crucial if we want to not only maintain healthy fisheries but indeed a healthy ocean,” says Jason Hodin, a research scientist at the University of Washington’s Friday Harbor Laboratories. http://staff.washington.edu/hodin/ http://depts.washington.edu/fhl/ Sea urchins reproduce by sending clouds of eggs and sperm into the water. Millions of larvae are formed, but only a handful make it back to the shoreline to grow into adults. --- What are sea urchins? Sea urchins are spiny invertebrate animals. Adult sea urchins are globe-shaped and show five-point radial symmetry. They move using a system of tube feet. Sea urchins belong to the phylum Echinodermata along with their relatives the sea stars (starfish), sand dollars and sea slugs. --- What do sea urchins eat? Sea urchins eat algae and can reduce kelp forests to barrens if their numbers grow too high. A sea urchin’s mouth, referred to as Aristotle’s lantern, is on the underside and has five sharp teeth. The urchin uses the tube feet to move the food to its mouth. --- How do sea urchins reproduce? Male sea urchins release clouds of sperm and females release huge numbers of eggs directly into the ocean water. The gametes meet and the sperm fertilize the eggs. The fertilized eggs grow into free-swimming embryos which themselves develop into larvae called plutei. The plutei swim through the ocean as plankton until they drop to the seafloor and metamorphosize into the globe-shaped adult urchins. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/08/23/sea-urchins-pull-themselves-inside-out-to-be-reborn/ ---+ For more information: Marine Larvae Video Resource http://marinedevelopmentresource.stanford.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: From Drifter to Dynamo: The Story of Plankton | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUvJ5ANH86I Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww The Fantastic Fur of Sea Otters | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zxqg_um1TXI ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay To Be Smart: Can Coral Reefs Survive Climate Change? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7ydNafXxJI Gross Science: White Sand Beaches Are Made of Fish Poop https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1SfxgY1dIM4 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #seaurchin #urchins
Views: 3122834 Deep Look
Why Reindeer and Their Cousins are Total Boneheads | Deep Look
 
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What if you had to grow 20 pounds of bone on your forehead each year just to find a mate? In a bloody, itchy process, males of the deer family grow a new set of antlers every year, use them to fend off the competition, and lose their impressive crowns when breeding season ends. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * WE’RE TAKING A BREAK FOR THE HOLIDAYS. WATCH OUR NEXT EPISODE ON JAN. 17, 2017. * Antlers are bones that grow right out of an animal’s head. It all starts with little knobs called pedicles. Reindeer, elk, and their relatives in the cervid family, like moose and deer, are born with them. But in most species pedicles only sprout antlers in males, because antlers require testosterone. The little antlers of a young tule elk, or a reindeer, are called spikes. Every year, a male grows a slightly larger set of antlers, until he becomes a “senior” and the antlers start to shrink. While it’s growing, the bone is hidden by a fuzzy layer of skin and fur called velvet that carries blood rich in calcium and phosphorous to build up the bone inside. When the antlers get hard, the blood stops flowing and the velvet cracks. It gets itchy and males scratch like crazy to get it off. From underneath emerges a clean, smooth antler. Males use their antlers during the mating season as a warning to other males to stay away from females, or to woo the females. When their warnings aren’t heeded, they use them to fight the competition. Once the mating season is over and the male no longer needs its antlers, the testosterone in its body drops and the antlers fall off. A new set starts growing almost right away. --- What are antlers made of? Antlers are made of bone. --- What is antler velvet? Velvet is the skin that covers a developing antler. --- What animals have antlers? Male members of the cervid, or deer, family grow antlers. The only species of deer in which females also grow antlers are reindeer. --- Are antlers horns? No. Horns, which are made of keratin (the same material our nails are made from), stay on an animal its entire life. Antlers fall off and grow back again each year. ---+ Read an article on KQED Science about how neuroscientists are investigating the potential of the nerves in antler velvet to return mobility to damaged human limbs, and perhaps one day even help paralyzed people: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/12/06/rudolphs-antlers-could-help-restore-mobility-in-injured-humans/ ---+ For more information on tule elk https://www.nps.gov/pore/learn/nature/tule_elk.htm ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Sex Lives of Christmas Trees https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEji9I4Tcjo Watch These Frustrated Squirrels Go Nuts! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZUjQtJGaSpk This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! The REAL Rudolph Has Bloody Antlers and Super Vision - Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gB6ND8nXgjA Global Weirding with Katharine Hayhoe: Texans don't care about climate change, right? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P_r_6D2LXVs&list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV&index=25 It’s Okay To Be Smart: Why Don’t Woodpeckers Get Concussions? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bqBxbMWd8O0 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 396604 Deep Look
This Pulsating Slime Mold Comes in Peace (ft. It's Okay to Be Smart) | Deep Look
 
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Are You Smarter Than A Slime Mold? Let’s go ask Joe Hanson: https://youtu.be/K8HEDqoTPgk SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. ---+ About Slime Molds Flip over a rotting log and chances are you’ll see a goopy streak stuck to the wood. If you were to film this goop and play the video back in high speed, you’d see something that might remind you of the 1950s sci-fi classic “The Blob:” a jelly-like creature pulsating in a strange way, a little bit forward, a little bit back, spreading and searching for something to devour. But this creature isn’t intent on world domination. It’s a slime mold, a very simple organism that is neither plant, nor animal, nor fungus. Unlike the cells of other living beings, which have only one nucleus that carries their genetic information, slime molds can organize into something like a cell with thousands of nuclei. Slime molds may move slowly, but they excite scientists by their ability to get a lot done with very little. Researchers at the University of California San Diego and UC Davis have been focusing their attention on how slime molds get around, in the hope of inspiring a new generation of soft-bodied robots with medical applications. Slime molds don’t have legs or any appendages. They eat bacteria and tiny fungi. And they move just by changing their shape. “It’s intriguing to understand how they can move when they’re softer than the environment,” said UC San Diego engineer Juan Carlos Del Alamo. “The absence of limbs makes it a difficult problem.” Slime mold’s locomotion is triggered by a chemical reaction. In the lab, Del Alamo and his colleagues cut off small pieces of a bright yellow slime mold called Physarum polycephalum and put them under a microscope. They watched each piece squeeze itself. This contraction is triggered by tiny calcium ions flowing inside it. The slime mold contracts its wall, then sloshes to move the calcium ions back so that they can trigger another contraction – at least that’s the researchers’ hypothesis. ---+ What are slime molds? Let’s start with what they’re not. They can stand upright and produce spores. But they’re not fungi or plants. When they’re hungry, they spread across the forest chasing food such as tiny fungi or bacteria. But they’re not animals. ---+ Where are slime molds often found? Slime molds are often found under rotting logs. You can also order the bright yellow slime mold in our video, Physarum polycephalum, from biological supplies companies. They’re fun to grow at home. ---+ What do slime molds eat? In nature, slime molds eat tiny fungi and bacteria. When they’re grown in the lab, researchers feed them oats. Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/04/19/this-pulsating-slime-mold-comes-in-peace/ ---+ More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Can A Thousand Tiny Swarming Robots Outsmart Nature? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDsmbwOrHJs This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY Banana Slugs: Secret of the Slime https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHvCQSGanJg&nohtml5=False ---+ More videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Gross Science: Why Am I Obsessed With Gross Stuff? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dfVN5w3_Y4 BrainCraft: The Prisoner's Dilemma https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p1KU7i5hpM8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1173609 Deep Look
These Crazy Cute Baby Turtles Want Their Lake Back | Deep Look
 
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Turtles grow up without parents, which might sound lonely. But for threatened baby turtles raised in a zoo it’s an advantage: they can learn to catch crickets all by themselves. There’s a paradox, though. When they are ready to leave the nursery, there is little wilderness where they can make a home. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Read more on baby turtles: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/01/26/these-crazy-cute-baby-turtles-want-their-lake-back Where do turtles live? Western pond turtles live most of their lives in the water, in freshwater lakes. What do turtles eat? The meat-eaters feed on crustaceans like crayfish, dragonfly nymphs and fish. Are turtles reptiles? Turtles are reptiles not amphibians. They are considered reptiles since they live in water. Are turtles endangered? "There are only 300 species, and most of them are doing quite poorly." The turtles haven’t been doing well in their native habitat in the western United States. In California, they’re a species of “special concern.” Why can turtles be raised in zoos? Most turtle species grow up without parents, which makes them easy to raise in zoos and help conservation. Once a female western pond turtle lays her eggs near a lake or pond, she never returns to the nest. Because they lack parental care, turtles don’t imprint on zoo keepers. More great Deep Look episodes: Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater: https://youtu.be/T-RtG5Z-9jQ Nature's Mood Rings: How Chameleons Really Change Color: https://youtu.be/Kp9W-_W8rCM Newt Sex: Buff Males! Writhing Females! Cannibalism! https://youtu.be/5m37QR_4XNY See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: https://youtu.be/fWc46NCnldo If you’re in the San Francisco Bay Area, The San Francisco Zoo is currently head-starting nine western pond turtle hatchlings and the Oakland Zoo, 16. The baby turtles at the San Francisco Zoo are on display in the Children’s Zoo, while the Oakland Zoo is raising theirs in a back room where six small tubs create the impression of a maternity ward. http://www.sfzoo.org/ http://oaklandzoo.org/ KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 653307 Deep Look
These Termites Turn Your House into a Palace of Poop | Deep Look
 
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Termites cause billions of dollars in damage annually – but they need help to do it. So they carry tiny organisms around with them in their gut. Together, termites and microorganisms can turn the wood in your house into a palace of poop. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Termites such as dampwood termites use their cardboard-like poop pellets to build up their nests, turning a human house into a termite toilet. “They build their own houses out of their own feces,” said entomologist Michael Scharf, of Purdue University, in Indiana. And while they’re using their poop as a building material, termites are also feeding on the wood. They’re one of the few animals that can extract nutrients from wood. But it turns out that they need help to do this. A termite’s gut is host to a couple dozen species of protists, organisms that are neither animals, nor plants, nor fungi. Scientists have found that several of them help termites break down wood. When some protists are eliminated from the termite’s gut, the insect can’t get any nutrition out of the wood. This is a weakness that biologists hope to exploit as a way to get rid of termites using biology rather than chemicals. Louisiana State University entomologist Chinmay Tikhe is working to genetically engineer a bacterium found in the Formosan termite’s gut so that the bacterium will destroy the gut protists. The idea would be to sneak these killer bacteria into the termite colony on some sort of bait the termites would eat and carry back with them. “It’s like a Trojan Horse,” said Tikhe, referring to the strategy used by the Greeks to sneak their troops into the city of Troy using a wooden horse that was the city’s emblem. The bacteria would then kill the protists that help the termite derive nutrition from wood. The termites would eventually starve. --- How do termites eat wood? Termites gnaw on the wood. Then they mix it with enzymes that start to break it down. But they need help turning the cellulose in wood into nutrients. They get help from hundreds, and sometimes thousands, of species of microbes that live inside their guts. One bacterium, for example, combines nitrogen from the air and calories from the wood to make protein for the termites. A termite’s gut is also host to a couple dozen species of protists. In the termite’s hindgut, protists ferment the wood into a substance called acetate, which gives the termite energy. --- How do termites get into our houses? Termites can crawl up into a house from the soil through specialized tubes made of dirt and saliva, or winged adults can fly in, or both. This depends on the species and caste member involved. --- What do termites eat in our houses? Once they’re established in our houses, termites attack and feed on sources of cellulose, a major component of wood, says entomologist Vernard Lewis, of the University of California, Berkeley. This could include anything from structural wood and paneling, to furniture and cotton clothing. Termites also will eat dead or living trees, depending on the species. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/10/18/these-termites-turn-your-house-into-a-palace-of-poop/ ---+ For more information: University of California Integrated Pest Management Program’s web page on termites: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7415.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU For These Tiny Spiders, It’s Sing or Get Served: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7qMqAgCqME Where are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay To Be Smart: The Donald Trump Caterpillar and Nature’s Masters of Disguise https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VTUCTT6I1TU Gross Science: Why Do Dogs Eat Poop? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3pB-xZGM1U ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. macro pest control #deeplook
Views: 958901 Deep Look
These Carnivorous Worms Catch Bugs by Mimicking the Night Sky  | Deep Look
 
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The glow worm colonies of New Zealand's Waitomo Caves imitate stars to confuse flying insects, then trap them in sticky snares and eat them alive. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is science up close - really, really close. An ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Like fireflies, the spectacular worms of New Zealand’s Waitomo Caves glow by breaking down a light-emitting protein. But unlike the yellow mating flashes of fireflies, the glow worms’ steady blue light has a more insidious purpose: it’s bait. The strategy is simple. Many of the glow worms’ prey are insects, including moths, that navigate by starlight. With imposter stars all around, the insects become disoriented and fly into a waiting snare. Once the victim has exhausted itself trying to get free, the glow worm reels in the catch. The prey is typically still alive when it arrives at the glow worm’s mouth, which has teeth sharp enough to bore through insect exoskeletons. Glow worms live in colonies, and researchers have noticed that individual worms seem to sync their lights to the members of their colony, brightening and dimming on a 24-hour cycle. There can be several colonies of glow worms in a cave, and studies have shown that different colonies are on different cycles, taking turns at peak illumination, when they’re most attractive to prey. Not surprisingly, the worms glow brighter when they’re hungry. --- How do glow worms glow? Their light is the result of a chemical reaction. The worms break down a protein called luciferin using an enzyme, luciferase, in a specialized section of their digestive tract. The glow shines through their translucent skin. --- Why do glow worms live in caves? The glow worms need to be in a dark environment where their light can be seen. Caves also shelter them from the wind, which can tangle their dangling snares. --- Where can I see glow worms? The Waitomo Caves are on New Zealand’s North Island. Other New Zealand glow worm sites include the Te Anau caves, Lake Rotoiti, Paparoa National Park, and Waipu. A related species inhabits similar caves in eastern Australia. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/06/28/these-carnivorous-worms-catch-bugs-by-mimicking-the-night-sky/ ---+ For more information: Discover Waitomo: http://www.waitomo.com/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boyzWeHdtiI The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWwgLS5tK80 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Are You Smarter Than A Slime Mold? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K8HEDqoTPgk Gross Science: Hookworms and the Myth of the "Lazy Southerner" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7BwgpYexMjk ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 663727 Deep Look
Stinging Scorpion vs. Pain-Defying Mouse | Deep Look
 
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There's a chemical arms race going on in the Sonoran Desert between a highly venomous scorpion and a particularly ferocious mouse. The outcome of their battle may one day change the way doctors treat pain in people. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Commonly found in the Sonoran Desert, the Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides sculpturatus) is the most dangerous scorpion in the continental United States. According to Keith Boesen, Director of the Arizona Poison & Drug Information Center, about 15,000 Americans report being stung by scorpions every year in the U.S. The worst stings, about 200 annually, are attributed to this one species. Its sting can cause sharp pain along with tingling, swelling, numbness, dizziness, shortness of breath, muscular convulsions, involuntary eye movements, coughing and vomiting. Children under two years old are especially vulnerable. Since 2000, three human deaths have been attributed to the Arizona bark scorpion in the United States, all within Arizona. But there is one unlikely creature that appears unimpressed. While it may not look the part, the Southern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys torridus) is an extremely capable hunter. It fearlessly stalks and devours any beetles or grasshoppers that have the misfortune to cross its path. But this mouse has a particular taste for scorpions. The scorpion venom contains neurotoxins that target sodium and potassium ion channels, proteins embedded within the surface of the nerve and muscle cells that play an important role in regulating the sensation of pain. Activating these channels sends signals down the nerves to the brain. That’s what causes the excruciating pain that human victims have described as the feeling like getting jabbed with a hot needle. Others compare the pain to an electric shock. But the grasshopper mouse has an entirely different reaction when stung. Within the mouse, a special protein in one of the sodium ion channels binds to the scorpion’s neurotoxin. Once bound, the neurotoxin is unable to activate the sodium ion channel and send the pain signal. Instead it has the entirely opposite effect. It shuts down the channel, keeping it from sending any signals, which has a numbing effect for the mouse. --- How many species of scorpion are there? There are almost 2,000 scorpion species, but only 30 or 40 have strong enough poison to kill a person. --- Are scorpions insects? Scorpions are members of the class Arachnida and are closely related to spiders, mites, and ticks. --- Where do Arizona bark scorpions live? Commonly found in the Sonoran Desert, the Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides sculpturatus) is the most dangerous scorpion in the continental United States. The Arizona bark scorpion’s preference for hanging to the underside of objects makes dangerous encounters with humans more likely. Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/03/08/stinging-scorpion-vs-pain-defying-mouse/ For more information: Michigan State University Venom Evolution: http://venomevolution.zoology.msu.edu/ Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability at the California Academy of Sciences: http://www.calacademy.org/scientists More great Deep Look episodes: What Happens When You Zap Coral With The World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser? https://youtu.be/aXmCU6IYnsA These 'Resurrection Plants' Spring Back to Life in Seconds https://youtu.be/eoFGKlZMo2g See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Your Salad Is Trying To Kill You https://youtu.be/8Ofgj2KDbfk It's Okay to Be Smart: The Oldest Living Things In The World https://youtu.be/jgspUYDwnzQ For more content from KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1196737 Deep Look
Can the Frog Apocalypse be Stopped by a New "Vaccine" ? | Deep Look
 
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A deadly fungus is attacking frogs’ skin and wiping out hundreds of species worldwide. Can anyone help California's remaining mountain yellow-legged frogs? In a last-ditch effort, scientists are trying something new: build defenses against the fungus through a kind of frog “vaccine.” SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Chytrid fungus has decimated some 200 amphibian species around the world, among them the mountain yellow-legged frogs of California’s Sierra Nevada mountain range. Frogs need healthy skin to survive. They breathe and drink water through it, and absorb the sodium and potassium their hearts need to work. In the late 1970s, chytrid fungus started getting into mountain yellow-legged frogs through their skin, moving through the water in their alpine lakes, or passed on by other frogs. The fungus destroys frogs’ skin to the point where they can no longer absorb sodium and potassium. Eventually, they die. At the University of California, Santa Barbara, biologists Cherie Briggs and Mary Toothman did an experiment to see if they could save mountain yellow-legged frogs by immunizing them against chytrid fungus. They grew some frogs from eggs. Then they infected them with chytrid fungus. The frogs got sick. Their skin sloughed off, as happens typically to infected frogs. But before the fungus could kill the frogs, the researchers treated them with a liquid antifungal that stopped the disease. When the frogs were nice and healthy again, researchers re-infected them with chytrid fungus. They found that all 20 frogs they had immunized survived. Now the San Francisco and Oakland zoos are replicating the experiment and returning dozens of mountain-yellow legged frogs to the Sierra Nevada’s alpine lakes. --- How does chytrid fungus kill frogs? Spores of chytrid fungus burrow down into frogs’ skin, which gets irritated. They run out of energy. Sick frogs’ legs lock in the straight position when they try to hop. As they get sicker, their skin sloughs off in translucent sheets. The frogs can no longer absorb sodium and potassium their hearts needs to function. “It takes 2-3 weeks for a yellow-legged frog to die from chytridiomycosis,” said mountain yellow-legged frog expert Vance Vredenburg , of San Francisco State University. “Eventually they die from a heart attack.” --- How does chytrid fungus spread? Fungus spores, which have a little tail called a flagellum, swim through the water and attack a frog’s skin. The fungus can also get passed on from amphibian to amphibian. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/09/06/can-a-new-vaccine-stem-the-frog-apocalypse/ ---+ For more information: AmphibiaWeb http://www.amphibiaweb.org/chytrid/chytridiomycosis.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Crazy Cute Baby Turtles Want Their Lake Back https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTYFdpNpkMY Newt Sex: Buff Males! Writhing Females! Cannibalism! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5m37QR_4XNY Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3BHrzDHoYo ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay To Be Smart: Do Plants Think? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zm6zfHzvqX4 Gross Science: Why Get Your Tetanus Shot? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4jrqj5Dr8s ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 313876 Deep Look
This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It | Deep Look
 
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Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook The notorious death cap mushroom causes poisonings and deaths around the world. If you were to eat these unassuming greenish mushrooms by mistake, you wouldn’t know your liver is in trouble until several hours later. The death cap has been spreading across California. Can scientists find a way to stop it? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Find out more on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/02/23/this-mushroom-starts-killing-you-before-you-even-realize-it/ Where do death cap mushrooms grow? In California, they grow mainly under coast live oaks. They have also been found under pines, and in Yosemite Valley under black oaks. Why do death caps grow under trees? As many fungi do, death cap mushrooms live off of trees, in what’s called a mycorrhizal relationship. They send filaments deep down to the trees’ roots, where they attach to the very thin root tips. The fungi absorb sugars from the trees and give them nutrients in exchange. Where do California’s death cap mushrooms come from? Biologist Anne Pringle, at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, has done research that shows that death caps likely snuck into California from Europe attached to the roots of imported plants, as early as 1938. How deadly are death cap mushrooms? Between 2010 and 2015, five people died in California and 57 became sick after eating the unassuming greenish mushrooms, according to the California Poison Control System. One mushroom cap is enough to kill a human being, and they’re also poisonous to dogs. Death caps are believed to be the number one cause of fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide. What happens if you eat a death cap mushroom? A toxin in the mushroom destroys your liver cells. Dr. Kent Olson, co-medical director of the San Francisco Division of the California Poison Control System, said that for the first six to 12 hours after they eat the mushroom, victims of the death cap feel fine. During that time, a toxin in the mushroom is quietly injuring their liver cells. Patients then develop severe abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. “They can become very rapidly dehydrated from the fluid losses,” said Olson. Dehydration can cause kidney failure, which compounds the damage to the liver. For the most severe cases, the only way to save the patient is a liver transplant. For more information on the death cap: Bay Area Mycological Society’s page with photos: http://bayareamushrooms.org/mushroommonth/amanita_phalloides.html Rod Tulloss’ detailed description: http://www.amanitaceae.org/?Amanita%20phalloides More great Deep Look episodes: What Happens When You Zap Coral With The World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser? https://youtu.be/aXmCU6IYnsA These 'Resurrection Plants' Spring Back to Life in Seconds https://youtu.be/eoFGKlZMo2g See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Your Salad Is Trying To Kill You https://youtu.be/8Ofgj2KDbfk It's Okay to Be Smart: The Oldest Living Things In The World https://youtu.be/jgspUYDwnzQ For more content from your local PBS and NPR affiliate: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #mushroom #deathcap
Views: 6108169 Deep Look
Behind the Scenes with Deep Look: Caddisflies
 
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How do we capture such amazing nature footage? Check out the making of "Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly." Watch producer Elliott Kennerson and cinematographer Josh Cassidy in action with UC Berkeley caddisfly expert Patina Mendez. Find out how they filmed these tiny creatures underwater and how they got the caddisflies to build their cases for the camera. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/08/16/behind-the-scenes-with-deep-look-caddisflies/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 These Carnivorous Worms Catch Bugs by Mimicking the Night Sky https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLb0iuTVzW0 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Venom: Nature’s Killer Cocktails https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qd92MuVZXik Gross Science: Sea Turtles Get Herpes, Too https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpqP9bUUInI ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 95088 Deep Look
The Ladybug Love-In: A Valentine's Special | Deep Look
 
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Ladybugs spend most of their lives alone, gorging themselves on aphids. But every winter they take to the wind, soaring over cities and fields to assemble for a ladybug bash. In these huge gatherings, they'll do more than hibernate-it's their best chance to find a mate. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: an ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Read more on ladybugs: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/02/09/the-once-in-a-lifetime-ladybug-love-in/ Where do ladybugs live? In California, ladybugs spend most of the year on crops in the Central Valley, or on domestic garden plants, feeding on aphids. When the weather starts to turn chilly, however, the aphids die off in the cold. With food becoming scarce, the ladybugs take off, flying straight up. The wind picks them up and carries them on their way, toward hills in the Bay Area and coastal mountain ranges. What do ladybugs eat? Ladybugs spend most of the year on crops or on domestic garden plants, feeding on aphids. Are ladybugs insects? Ladybugs belong to the order Coleoptera, or beetles. Europeans have called these dome-backed beetles by the name ladybirds, or ladybird beetles, for over 500 years. In America, the name ladybird was replaced by ladybug. Scientists usually prefer the common name lady beetles. Why are some ladybugs red? The red color is to signal to predators that they are toxic. "They truly do taste bad. In high enough concentrations, they can be toxic," said Christopher Wheeler, who studied ladybug behavior for his Ph.D. at UC Riverside. More great Deep Look episodes on biology: Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://youtu.be/-6oKJ5FGk24 Watch Flesh-Eating Beetles Strip Bodies to the Bone: https://youtu.be/Np0hJGKrIWg Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater: https://youtu.be/T-RtG5Z-9jQ See also another great video from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Why Seasons Make No Sense https://youtu.be/s0oX9YJ5XLo If you're in the San Francisco Bay Area, In the Bay Area, one of the best places to view ladybug aggregations is Redwood Regional Park in Oakland. Between November and February, numerous points along the park's main artery, the Stream Trail, are swarming with the insects. http://www.ebparks.org/parks/redwood KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Views: 1210931 Deep Look
Welcome to Deep Look | PBS Digital Studios | KQED
 
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DEEP LOOK - see the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Twice a month, get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt All-NEW EPISODES EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! #deeplook
Views: 83602 Deep Look